A comparative analysis of the properties of two optical biosensor platforms: (1) the propagating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a planar, thin film gold surface and (2) the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor based on surface confined Ag nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography (NSL) are presented. The binding of Concanavalin A (ConA) to mannose-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was chosen to highlight the similarities and differences between the responses of the real-time angle shift SPR and wavelength shift LSPR biosensors. During the association phase in the real-time binding studies, both SPR and LSPR sensors exhibited qualitatively similar signal vs time curves. However, in the dissociation phase, the SPR sensor showed an approximately 5 times greater loss of signal than the LSPR sensor. A comprehensive set of nonspecific binding studies demonstrated that this signal difference was not the consequence of greater nonspecific binding to the LSPR sensor but rather a systematic function of the Ag nanoparticle's nanoscale structure. Ag nanoparticles with larger aspect ratios showed larger dissociation phase responses than those with smaller aspect ratios. A theoretical analysis based on finite element electrodynamics demonstrates that this results from the characteristic decay length of the electromagnetic fields surrounding Ag nanoparticles being of comparable dimensions to the ConA molecules. Finally, an elementary (2 × 1) multiplexed version of an LSPR carbohydrate sensing chip to probe the simultaneous binding of ConA to mannose and galactose-functionalized SAMs has been demonstrated.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry