The elucidation of the long range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of surface-confined noble metal nanoparticles is the aim of this work. It was suspected that the linear distance dependence found in CH3(CH2)xSH self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation was the thin shell limit of a longer range, nonlinear dependence. To verify this, multilayer SAM shells based on the interaction of HOOC-(CH2)10SH and Cu2+ were assembled onto surface-confined noble metal nanoparticles and were monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. Measurement of the LSPR extinction peak shift versus number of layers and adsorbate thickness is nonlinear and has a sensing range that is dependent on the composition, shape, in-plane width, and out-of-plane height of the nanoparticles. Theoretical calculations based on an accurate electrodynamics description of the metal nanoparticle plus surrounding layered material indicate plasmon resonance wavelength shifts that are in excellent agreement with the measurements. The calculations show that the sensing range is determined by falloff of the average induced electric field around the nanoparticle. This detailed set of experiments coupled with an excellent theory versus experiment comparison prove that the sensing capabilities of noble metal nanoparticles can be size tuned to match the dimensions of biological and chemical analytes by adjusting the aforementioned properties. The optimization of the LSPR nanosensor for a specific analyte will significantly improve an already sensitive nanoparticle-based sensor.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry