A synthetic and mechanistic study of oxycarbene-like coupling reaction patterns of actinide η2-acyl complexes with carbon monoxide and isocyanides

Kenneth G. Moloy, Paul J. Fagan, Juan M. Manriquez, Tobin J Marks

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Abstract

This contribution reports the synthesis and characterization of the ylide complexes Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(PR3)O](Cl) (Cp′ = η5-C5Me5; R = Me, Ph) formed by the carbonylation of Cp′2Th(Cl)(η2-COCH2-t-Bu) (1) in the presence of phosphines. Isotopic tracer studies with 13CO indicate that the labeled carbon atom is incorporated regiospecifically at the ylide α-carbon atom position. The carbonylation of 1 to yield the enedionediolate {Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CO](Cl)}2 (2) or the ylide complexes was found to obey a second-order rate law where rate = kPCO[1]; k = 1-50 (5) × 10-5 min-1 torr-1 for both carbonylations at 30.8°C. The rate of formation of the ylide complexes was also found to be independent of solvent, phosphine concentration, and type of phosphine used. The carbonylation of 1 is therefore inferred to involve a rate-determining coupling of CO with the acyl to yield an intermediate ketene or ketene-like complex. The reaction of acyl 1 or Cp′2Th-(Cl)(η2-COCH2Ph) with a variety of isocyanides (RNC; R = t-Bu, C6H11, 2,6-Me2C6H3) results in the formation of ketenimine complexes of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](Cl). Addition of a second equivalent of isocyanide yields simple adducts of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](CNR)(Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](CNR)(Cl). These new complexes have been fully characterized by standard techniques and the ketenimine Cp′2Th(Cl)[OC(CH2-t-Bu)(CN-2,6-Me2C 6H3)] by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Under the appropriate conditions, the N-aryl complexes suffer secondary reactions in which the η2-acyl ultimately undergoes coupling with 2 equiv of isocyanide to yield acetylindolate and acetylindoleninate derivatives. The η2-acyl was also found to undergo coupling with 1 equiv of diphenylketene to yield the complex Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(CPh2)O](Cl). These coupling products have been fully characterized by conventional analytical and structural methodology. The mechanistic and reactivity results of this study are discussed in terms of the anchored Fischer carbene-like character of actinide η2-acyls and the mechanism by which the carbonylation of 1 yields the enedionediolate 2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-67
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume108
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1986

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phosphine
Actinoid Series Elements
Carbonylation
Actinides
Cyanides
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon
Phosphines
X-Ray Diffraction
Atoms
Single crystals
Derivatives
X ray diffraction
ketene
ketenimine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

A synthetic and mechanistic study of oxycarbene-like coupling reaction patterns of actinide η2-acyl complexes with carbon monoxide and isocyanides. / Moloy, Kenneth G.; Fagan, Paul J.; Manriquez, Juan M.; Marks, Tobin J.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 108, No. 1, 1986, p. 56-67.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "This contribution reports the synthesis and characterization of the ylide complexes Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(PR3)O](Cl) (Cp′ = η5-C5Me5; R = Me, Ph) formed by the carbonylation of Cp′2Th(Cl)(η2-COCH2-t-Bu) (1) in the presence of phosphines. Isotopic tracer studies with 13CO indicate that the labeled carbon atom is incorporated regiospecifically at the ylide α-carbon atom position. The carbonylation of 1 to yield the enedionediolate {Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CO](Cl)}2 (2) or the ylide complexes was found to obey a second-order rate law where rate = kPCO[1]; k = 1-50 (5) × 10-5 min-1 torr-1 for both carbonylations at 30.8°C. The rate of formation of the ylide complexes was also found to be independent of solvent, phosphine concentration, and type of phosphine used. The carbonylation of 1 is therefore inferred to involve a rate-determining coupling of CO with the acyl to yield an intermediate ketene or ketene-like complex. The reaction of acyl 1 or Cp′2Th-(Cl)(η2-COCH2Ph) with a variety of isocyanides (RNC; R = t-Bu, C6H11, 2,6-Me2C6H3) results in the formation of ketenimine complexes of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](Cl). Addition of a second equivalent of isocyanide yields simple adducts of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](CNR)(Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](CNR)(Cl). These new complexes have been fully characterized by standard techniques and the ketenimine Cp′2Th(Cl)[OC(CH2-t-Bu)(CN-2,6-Me2C 6H3)] by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Under the appropriate conditions, the N-aryl complexes suffer secondary reactions in which the η2-acyl ultimately undergoes coupling with 2 equiv of isocyanide to yield acetylindolate and acetylindoleninate derivatives. The η2-acyl was also found to undergo coupling with 1 equiv of diphenylketene to yield the complex Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(CPh2)O](Cl). These coupling products have been fully characterized by conventional analytical and structural methodology. The mechanistic and reactivity results of this study are discussed in terms of the anchored Fischer carbene-like character of actinide η2-acyls and the mechanism by which the carbonylation of 1 yields the enedionediolate 2.",
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T1 - A synthetic and mechanistic study of oxycarbene-like coupling reaction patterns of actinide η2-acyl complexes with carbon monoxide and isocyanides

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AU - Marks, Tobin J

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N2 - This contribution reports the synthesis and characterization of the ylide complexes Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(PR3)O](Cl) (Cp′ = η5-C5Me5; R = Me, Ph) formed by the carbonylation of Cp′2Th(Cl)(η2-COCH2-t-Bu) (1) in the presence of phosphines. Isotopic tracer studies with 13CO indicate that the labeled carbon atom is incorporated regiospecifically at the ylide α-carbon atom position. The carbonylation of 1 to yield the enedionediolate {Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CO](Cl)}2 (2) or the ylide complexes was found to obey a second-order rate law where rate = kPCO[1]; k = 1-50 (5) × 10-5 min-1 torr-1 for both carbonylations at 30.8°C. The rate of formation of the ylide complexes was also found to be independent of solvent, phosphine concentration, and type of phosphine used. The carbonylation of 1 is therefore inferred to involve a rate-determining coupling of CO with the acyl to yield an intermediate ketene or ketene-like complex. The reaction of acyl 1 or Cp′2Th-(Cl)(η2-COCH2Ph) with a variety of isocyanides (RNC; R = t-Bu, C6H11, 2,6-Me2C6H3) results in the formation of ketenimine complexes of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](Cl). Addition of a second equivalent of isocyanide yields simple adducts of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](CNR)(Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](CNR)(Cl). These new complexes have been fully characterized by standard techniques and the ketenimine Cp′2Th(Cl)[OC(CH2-t-Bu)(CN-2,6-Me2C 6H3)] by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Under the appropriate conditions, the N-aryl complexes suffer secondary reactions in which the η2-acyl ultimately undergoes coupling with 2 equiv of isocyanide to yield acetylindolate and acetylindoleninate derivatives. The η2-acyl was also found to undergo coupling with 1 equiv of diphenylketene to yield the complex Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(CPh2)O](Cl). These coupling products have been fully characterized by conventional analytical and structural methodology. The mechanistic and reactivity results of this study are discussed in terms of the anchored Fischer carbene-like character of actinide η2-acyls and the mechanism by which the carbonylation of 1 yields the enedionediolate 2.

AB - This contribution reports the synthesis and characterization of the ylide complexes Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(PR3)O](Cl) (Cp′ = η5-C5Me5; R = Me, Ph) formed by the carbonylation of Cp′2Th(Cl)(η2-COCH2-t-Bu) (1) in the presence of phosphines. Isotopic tracer studies with 13CO indicate that the labeled carbon atom is incorporated regiospecifically at the ylide α-carbon atom position. The carbonylation of 1 to yield the enedionediolate {Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CO](Cl)}2 (2) or the ylide complexes was found to obey a second-order rate law where rate = kPCO[1]; k = 1-50 (5) × 10-5 min-1 torr-1 for both carbonylations at 30.8°C. The rate of formation of the ylide complexes was also found to be independent of solvent, phosphine concentration, and type of phosphine used. The carbonylation of 1 is therefore inferred to involve a rate-determining coupling of CO with the acyl to yield an intermediate ketene or ketene-like complex. The reaction of acyl 1 or Cp′2Th-(Cl)(η2-COCH2Ph) with a variety of isocyanides (RNC; R = t-Bu, C6H11, 2,6-Me2C6H3) results in the formation of ketenimine complexes of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](Cl). Addition of a second equivalent of isocyanide yields simple adducts of the type Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)CNR](CNR)(Cl) and Cp′2Th[OC(CH2Ph)CNR](CNR)(Cl). These new complexes have been fully characterized by standard techniques and the ketenimine Cp′2Th(Cl)[OC(CH2-t-Bu)(CN-2,6-Me2C 6H3)] by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Under the appropriate conditions, the N-aryl complexes suffer secondary reactions in which the η2-acyl ultimately undergoes coupling with 2 equiv of isocyanide to yield acetylindolate and acetylindoleninate derivatives. The η2-acyl was also found to undergo coupling with 1 equiv of diphenylketene to yield the complex Cp′2Th[OC(CH2-t-Bu)C(CPh2)O](Cl). These coupling products have been fully characterized by conventional analytical and structural methodology. The mechanistic and reactivity results of this study are discussed in terms of the anchored Fischer carbene-like character of actinide η2-acyls and the mechanism by which the carbonylation of 1 yields the enedionediolate 2.

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