Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu

Hokwon Kim, Cecilia Mattevi, M. Reyes Calvo, Jenny C. Oberg, Luca Artiglia, Stefano Agnoli, Cyrus F. Hirjibehedin, Manish Chhowalla, Eduardo Saiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

237 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The synthesis of wafer-scale single crystal graphene remains a challenge toward the utilization of its intrinsic properties in electronics. Until now, the large-area chemical vapor deposition of graphene has yielded a polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries are detrimental to its electrical properties. Here, we study the physicochemical mechanisms underlying the nucleation and growth kinetics of graphene on copper, providing new insights necessary for the engineering synthesis of wafer-scale single crystals. Graphene arises from the crystallization of a supersaturated fraction of carbon-adatom species, and its nucleation density is the result of competition between the mobility of the carbon-adatom species and their desorption rate. As the energetics of these phenomena varies with temperature, the nucleation activation energies can span over a wide range (1-3 eV) leading to a rational prediction of the individual nuclei size and density distribution. The growth-limiting step was found to be the attachment of carbon-adatom species to the graphene edges, which was independent of the Cu crystalline orientation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3614-3623
Number of pages10
JournalACS Nano
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 24 2012

Fingerprint

Graphite
Graphene
graphene
Nucleation
Activation energy
nucleation
Adatoms
activation energy
adatoms
Carbon
carbon
Single crystals
wafers
Polycrystalline materials
Growth kinetics
single crystals
synthesis
Crystallization
Crystal orientation
attachment

Keywords

  • 2D nanomaterial
  • chemical vapor deposition
  • graphene
  • large-area optoelectronics
  • nucleation and growth
  • surface catalysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Kim, H., Mattevi, C., Calvo, M. R., Oberg, J. C., Artiglia, L., Agnoli, S., ... Saiz, E. (2012). Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu. ACS Nano, 6(4), 3614-3623. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn3008965

Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu. / Kim, Hokwon; Mattevi, Cecilia; Calvo, M. Reyes; Oberg, Jenny C.; Artiglia, Luca; Agnoli, Stefano; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Chhowalla, Manish; Saiz, Eduardo.

In: ACS Nano, Vol. 6, No. 4, 24.04.2012, p. 3614-3623.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, H, Mattevi, C, Calvo, MR, Oberg, JC, Artiglia, L, Agnoli, S, Hirjibehedin, CF, Chhowalla, M & Saiz, E 2012, 'Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu', ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 3614-3623. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn3008965
Kim H, Mattevi C, Calvo MR, Oberg JC, Artiglia L, Agnoli S et al. Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu. ACS Nano. 2012 Apr 24;6(4):3614-3623. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn3008965
Kim, Hokwon ; Mattevi, Cecilia ; Calvo, M. Reyes ; Oberg, Jenny C. ; Artiglia, Luca ; Agnoli, Stefano ; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F. ; Chhowalla, Manish ; Saiz, Eduardo. / Activation energy paths for graphene nucleation and growth on Cu. In: ACS Nano. 2012 ; Vol. 6, No. 4. pp. 3614-3623.
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