Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of Radiation-Induced Chemistries of Organotin Clusters

J. Trey Diulus, Ryan T. Frederick, Mengjun Li, Danielle C. Hutchison, Morgan R. Olsen, Igor Lyubinetsky, Líney Árnadóttir, Eric L. Garfunkel, May Nyman, Hirohito Ogasawara, Gregory S. Herman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Advances in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photolithography require the development of next-generation resists that allow high-volume nanomanufacturing with a single nanometer patterning resolution. Organotin-based photoresists have demonstrated nanopatterning with high resolution, high sensitivity, and low-line edge roughness. However, very little is known regarding the detailed reaction mechanisms that lead to radiation-induced solubility transitions. In this study, we investigate the interaction of soft X-ray radiation with organotin clusters to better understand radiation-induced chemistries associated with EUV lithography. Butyltin Keggin clusters (β-NaSn 13 ) were used as a model organotin photoresist, and characterization was performed using ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in relative atomic concentrations and associated chemical states in β-NaSn 13 resists were evaluated after exposure to radiation for a range of ambient conditions and photon energies. A significant reduction in the C 1s signal versus exposure time was observed, which corresponds to the radiation-induced homolytic cleavage of the butyltin bond in the β-NaSn 13 clusters. To improve the resist sensitivity, we evaluated the effect of oxygen partial pressure during radiation exposures. We found that both photon energy and oxygen partial pressure had a strong influence on the butyl group desorption rate. These studies advance the understanding of radiation-induced processes in β-NaSn 13 photoresists and provide mechanistic insights for EUV photolithography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2526-2534
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 16 2019


  • EUV lithography
  • XAS
  • nanocluster
  • organotin-based photoresist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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