An electrochemical, microtopographical and ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of Si/TiO2/Ni/electrolyte interfaces

Michael F. Lichterman, Matthias H. Richter, Shu Hu, Ethan J. Crumlin, Stephanus Axnanda, Marco Favaro, Walter Drisdell, Zahid Hussain, Bruce S. Brunschwig, Nathan S Lewis, Zhi Liu, Hans Joachim Lewerenz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The electrical and spectroscopic properties of the TiO2/Ni protection layer system, which enables stabilization of otherwise corroding photoanodes, have been investigated in contact with electrolyte solutions by scanning-probe microscopy, electrochemistry and in-situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). Specifically, the energy-band relations of the p+-Si/ALD-TiO2/Ni interface have been determined for a selected range of Ni thicknesses. AP-XPS measurements using tender X-rays were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical arrangement under potentiostatic controlto obtain information from the semiconductor near-surface region, the electrochemical double layer (ECDL) and the electrolyte beyond the ECDL. The degree of conductivity depended on the chemical state of the Ni on the TiO2 surface. At low loadings of Ni, the Ni was present primarily as an oxide layer and the samples were not conductive, although the TiO2 XPS core levels nonetheless displayed behavior indicative of a metal-electrolyte junction. In contrast, as the Ni thickness increased, the Ni phase was primarily metallic and the electrochemical behavior became highly conductive, with the AP-XPS data indicative of a metal-electrolyte junction. Electrochemical and microtopographical methods have been employed to better define the nature of the TiO2/Ni electrodes and to contextualize the AP-XPS results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H139-H146
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume163
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Photoelectrons
Electrolytes
photoelectrons
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
electrolytes
X rays
photoelectron spectroscopy
x rays
Metals
Electrochemical electrodes
Scanning probe microscopy
Core levels
electrodes
Electrochemistry
electrochemistry
Band structure
metals
Contacts (fluid mechanics)
Oxides
energy bands

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

An electrochemical, microtopographical and ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of Si/TiO2/Ni/electrolyte interfaces. / Lichterman, Michael F.; Richter, Matthias H.; Hu, Shu; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Axnanda, Stephanus; Favaro, Marco; Drisdell, Walter; Hussain, Zahid; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S; Liu, Zhi; Lewerenz, Hans Joachim.

In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, No. 2, 2016, p. H139-H146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lichterman, MF, Richter, MH, Hu, S, Crumlin, EJ, Axnanda, S, Favaro, M, Drisdell, W, Hussain, Z, Brunschwig, BS, Lewis, NS, Liu, Z & Lewerenz, HJ 2016, 'An electrochemical, microtopographical and ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of Si/TiO2/Ni/electrolyte interfaces', Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. H139-H146. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0861602jes
Lichterman, Michael F. ; Richter, Matthias H. ; Hu, Shu ; Crumlin, Ethan J. ; Axnanda, Stephanus ; Favaro, Marco ; Drisdell, Walter ; Hussain, Zahid ; Brunschwig, Bruce S. ; Lewis, Nathan S ; Liu, Zhi ; Lewerenz, Hans Joachim. / An electrochemical, microtopographical and ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of Si/TiO2/Ni/electrolyte interfaces. In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2016 ; Vol. 163, No. 2. pp. H139-H146.
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