Anode interfacial engineering approaches to enhancing anode/hole transport layer interfacial stability and charge injection efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes

Ji Cui, Qinglan Huang, Jonathan C.G. Veinot, He Yan, Qingwu Wang, Geoffrey R. Hutchison, Andrew G. Richter, Guennadi Evmenenko, Pulak Dutta, Tobin J. Marks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

101 Citations (Scopus)


The integrity of anode/organic interfacial contact is shown to be crucial to the performance and stability of archetypical small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this contribution, vapor-deposited lipophilic, hole-transporting 1,4-bis(phenyl-m-tolylamino)biphenyl (TPD) and 1,4-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) thin films are shown to undergo decohesion on ITO anode surfaces under mild heating. An effective approach to ameliorate such interfacial decohesion is introduction, via self-assembly or spin-coating, of covalently bound N(p-C6H4CH2CH2CH2 SiCl3)3 (TAA)- and 4,4′-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl (TPD-Si2)-derived adhesion/injection layers at the anode/hole transport layer interface. The resulting angstrom-scale hole transport layers prevent decohesion of vapor-deposited hole transport layers and significantly enhance OLED hole injection fluence. OLEDs fabricated with these modified interfaces exhibit appreciably reduced turn-on voltages, considerably higher luminous intensities, and enhanced thermal robustness versus bare ITO-based control devices. Spin-coated, cross-linked TPD-Si2 films, in particular, prove to be superior to conventional ITO functionalization interlayers, including copper phthalocyanine, in this regard. The present ITO-functionalized devices achieve maximum external forward quantum efficiencies as high as 1.2% and a luminous level of 15 000 cd/m2 in simple ITO/interlayer/HTL/Alq/Al heterostructures. We also show that Cu(Pc) interlayers actually suppress, rather than enhance, hole injection and template crystallization of vapor-deposited TPD and NPB at modest temperatures, resulting in poor OLED thermal stability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9958-9970
Number of pages13
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - Dec 10 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry

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