Aromatic vs aliphatic C-H bond activation by rhodium(I) as a function of agostic interactions

Catalytic H/D exchange between olefins and methanol or water

Boris Rybtchinski, Revital Cohen, Yehoshoa Ben-David, Jan M L Martin, David Milstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

96 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aryl-PC type ligand 3, benzyl(di-tert-butyl)phosphane, reacts with [Rh(coe)2(solv)n]BF4 (coe = cyclooctene, solv = solvent), producing the C-H activated complexes 4a-c (solv = (a) acetone, (b) THF, (c) methanol). Complexes 4a-c undergo reversible arene C-H activation (observed by NMR spin saturation transfer experiments, SST) and H/D exchange into the hydride and aryl ortho-H with ROD (R = D, Me). They also promote catalytic H/D exchange into the vinylic C-H bond of olefins, with deuterated methanol or water utilized as D-donors. Unexpectedly, complex 2, based on the benzyl-PC type ligand 1 (analogous to 3), di-tert-butyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl)phosphane, shows a very different reversible C-H activation pattern as observed by SST. It is not active in H/D exchange with ROD and in catalytic H/D exchange with olefins. To clarify our observations regarding C-H activation/reductive elimination in both PC-Rh systems, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed. Both nucleophilic (oxidative addition) and electrophilic (H/D exchange) C-H activation proceed through η2-C,H agostic intermediates. In the aryl-PC system the agostic interaction causes C-H bond acidity sufficient for the H/D exchange with water or methanol, which is not the case in the benzyl PC-Rh system. In the latter system the C-H coordination pattern of the methyl controls the reversible C-H oxidative addition leading to energetically different C-H activation processes, in accordance with the experimental observations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11041-11050
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume125
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 10 2003

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phosphine
Rhodium
Alkenes
Olefins
Methanol
Chemical activation
Hydrogen
Water
Ligands
Dilatation and Curettage
Acetone
Acidity
Hydrides
Density functional theory
Ion exchange
Experiments
Nuclear magnetic resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Aromatic vs aliphatic C-H bond activation by rhodium(I) as a function of agostic interactions : Catalytic H/D exchange between olefins and methanol or water. / Rybtchinski, Boris; Cohen, Revital; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 125, No. 36, 10.09.2003, p. 11041-11050.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The aryl-PC type ligand 3, benzyl(di-tert-butyl)phosphane, reacts with [Rh(coe)2(solv)n]BF4 (coe = cyclooctene, solv = solvent), producing the C-H activated complexes 4a-c (solv = (a) acetone, (b) THF, (c) methanol). Complexes 4a-c undergo reversible arene C-H activation (observed by NMR spin saturation transfer experiments, SST) and H/D exchange into the hydride and aryl ortho-H with ROD (R = D, Me). They also promote catalytic H/D exchange into the vinylic C-H bond of olefins, with deuterated methanol or water utilized as D-donors. Unexpectedly, complex 2, based on the benzyl-PC type ligand 1 (analogous to 3), di-tert-butyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl)phosphane, shows a very different reversible C-H activation pattern as observed by SST. It is not active in H/D exchange with ROD and in catalytic H/D exchange with olefins. To clarify our observations regarding C-H activation/reductive elimination in both PC-Rh systems, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed. Both nucleophilic (oxidative addition) and electrophilic (H/D exchange) C-H activation proceed through η2-C,H agostic intermediates. In the aryl-PC system the agostic interaction causes C-H bond acidity sufficient for the H/D exchange with water or methanol, which is not the case in the benzyl PC-Rh system. In the latter system the C-H coordination pattern of the methyl controls the reversible C-H oxidative addition leading to energetically different C-H activation processes, in accordance with the experimental observations.",
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AB - The aryl-PC type ligand 3, benzyl(di-tert-butyl)phosphane, reacts with [Rh(coe)2(solv)n]BF4 (coe = cyclooctene, solv = solvent), producing the C-H activated complexes 4a-c (solv = (a) acetone, (b) THF, (c) methanol). Complexes 4a-c undergo reversible arene C-H activation (observed by NMR spin saturation transfer experiments, SST) and H/D exchange into the hydride and aryl ortho-H with ROD (R = D, Me). They also promote catalytic H/D exchange into the vinylic C-H bond of olefins, with deuterated methanol or water utilized as D-donors. Unexpectedly, complex 2, based on the benzyl-PC type ligand 1 (analogous to 3), di-tert-butyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl)phosphane, shows a very different reversible C-H activation pattern as observed by SST. It is not active in H/D exchange with ROD and in catalytic H/D exchange with olefins. To clarify our observations regarding C-H activation/reductive elimination in both PC-Rh systems, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed. Both nucleophilic (oxidative addition) and electrophilic (H/D exchange) C-H activation proceed through η2-C,H agostic intermediates. In the aryl-PC system the agostic interaction causes C-H bond acidity sufficient for the H/D exchange with water or methanol, which is not the case in the benzyl PC-Rh system. In the latter system the C-H coordination pattern of the methyl controls the reversible C-H oxidative addition leading to energetically different C-H activation processes, in accordance with the experimental observations.

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