Atomic layer deposition of indium tin oxide thin films using nonhalogenated precursors

Jeffrey W. Elam, David A. Baker, Alex B F Martinson, Michael J. Pellin, Joseph T Hupp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This article describes a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using nonhalogenated precursors. The indium oxide (In2O3) was deposited using alternating exposures to cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and ozone, and the tin oxide (SnO2) used alternating exposures to tetrakis-(dimethylamino) tin (TDMASn) and hydrogen peroxide. By adjusting the relative number of In 2O3 and SnO2 ALD cycles, we deposited ITO films with well-controlled SnO2 content. The ITO films were examined using four-point probe and Hall probe measurements, spectrophotometry, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction. The lowest resistivity (3 × 10-4 Ωcm) and highest optical transparency (92%) were obtained for films containing 5% SnO2. The ITO films were slightly thinner and contained more SnO2 than expected on the basis of rule-of-mixtures predictions. In situ measurements revealed that these discrepancies result from an inhibition of the In 2O3 growth following the SnO2 doping layers. This new ALD method is suitable for applying ITO layers on very high aspect ratio nanoporous membranes to be used in photovoltaic or spectroelectrochemical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1938-1945
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume112
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 14 2008

Fingerprint

Atomic layer deposition
atomic layer epitaxy
Tin oxides
indium oxides
Indium
tin oxides
Oxide films
Thin films
thin films
oxide films
Tin
Ozone
Ellipsometry
Spectrophotometry
probes
Transparency
Hydrogen Peroxide
spectrophotometry
Aspect ratio
in situ measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Energy(all)

Cite this

Atomic layer deposition of indium tin oxide thin films using nonhalogenated precursors. / Elam, Jeffrey W.; Baker, David A.; Martinson, Alex B F; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 112, No. 6, 14.02.2008, p. 1938-1945.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Elam, Jeffrey W. ; Baker, David A. ; Martinson, Alex B F ; Pellin, Michael J. ; Hupp, Joseph T. / Atomic layer deposition of indium tin oxide thin films using nonhalogenated precursors. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2008 ; Vol. 112, No. 6. pp. 1938-1945.
@article{4a15475f5a984ac78c5e83c71c5f3dff,
title = "Atomic layer deposition of indium tin oxide thin films using nonhalogenated precursors",
abstract = "This article describes a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using nonhalogenated precursors. The indium oxide (In2O3) was deposited using alternating exposures to cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and ozone, and the tin oxide (SnO2) used alternating exposures to tetrakis-(dimethylamino) tin (TDMASn) and hydrogen peroxide. By adjusting the relative number of In 2O3 and SnO2 ALD cycles, we deposited ITO films with well-controlled SnO2 content. The ITO films were examined using four-point probe and Hall probe measurements, spectrophotometry, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction. The lowest resistivity (3 × 10-4 Ωcm) and highest optical transparency (92{\%}) were obtained for films containing 5{\%} SnO2. The ITO films were slightly thinner and contained more SnO2 than expected on the basis of rule-of-mixtures predictions. In situ measurements revealed that these discrepancies result from an inhibition of the In 2O3 growth following the SnO2 doping layers. This new ALD method is suitable for applying ITO layers on very high aspect ratio nanoporous membranes to be used in photovoltaic or spectroelectrochemical applications.",
author = "Elam, {Jeffrey W.} and Baker, {David A.} and Martinson, {Alex B F} and Pellin, {Michael J.} and Hupp, {Joseph T}",
year = "2008",
month = "2",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1021/jp7097312",
language = "English",
volume = "112",
pages = "1938--1945",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry C",
issn = "1932-7447",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Atomic layer deposition of indium tin oxide thin films using nonhalogenated precursors

AU - Elam, Jeffrey W.

AU - Baker, David A.

AU - Martinson, Alex B F

AU - Pellin, Michael J.

AU - Hupp, Joseph T

PY - 2008/2/14

Y1 - 2008/2/14

N2 - This article describes a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using nonhalogenated precursors. The indium oxide (In2O3) was deposited using alternating exposures to cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and ozone, and the tin oxide (SnO2) used alternating exposures to tetrakis-(dimethylamino) tin (TDMASn) and hydrogen peroxide. By adjusting the relative number of In 2O3 and SnO2 ALD cycles, we deposited ITO films with well-controlled SnO2 content. The ITO films were examined using four-point probe and Hall probe measurements, spectrophotometry, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction. The lowest resistivity (3 × 10-4 Ωcm) and highest optical transparency (92%) were obtained for films containing 5% SnO2. The ITO films were slightly thinner and contained more SnO2 than expected on the basis of rule-of-mixtures predictions. In situ measurements revealed that these discrepancies result from an inhibition of the In 2O3 growth following the SnO2 doping layers. This new ALD method is suitable for applying ITO layers on very high aspect ratio nanoporous membranes to be used in photovoltaic or spectroelectrochemical applications.

AB - This article describes a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using nonhalogenated precursors. The indium oxide (In2O3) was deposited using alternating exposures to cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and ozone, and the tin oxide (SnO2) used alternating exposures to tetrakis-(dimethylamino) tin (TDMASn) and hydrogen peroxide. By adjusting the relative number of In 2O3 and SnO2 ALD cycles, we deposited ITO films with well-controlled SnO2 content. The ITO films were examined using four-point probe and Hall probe measurements, spectrophotometry, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction. The lowest resistivity (3 × 10-4 Ωcm) and highest optical transparency (92%) were obtained for films containing 5% SnO2. The ITO films were slightly thinner and contained more SnO2 than expected on the basis of rule-of-mixtures predictions. In situ measurements revealed that these discrepancies result from an inhibition of the In 2O3 growth following the SnO2 doping layers. This new ALD method is suitable for applying ITO layers on very high aspect ratio nanoporous membranes to be used in photovoltaic or spectroelectrochemical applications.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=40049110891&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=40049110891&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/jp7097312

DO - 10.1021/jp7097312

M3 - Article

VL - 112

SP - 1938

EP - 1945

JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry C

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry C

SN - 1932-7447

IS - 6

ER -