Valence-band and conduction-band edges of ultrathin oxides (SiO2, HfO2, Hf0.7 Si0.3 O2, and Al2 O3 grown on silicon) and their shifts upon sequential metallization with ruthenium have been measured using synchrotron-radiation- excited x-ray, ultraviolet, and inverse photoemissions. From these techniques, the offsets between the valence-band and conduction-band edges of the oxides, and the ruthenium metal gate Fermi edge have been directly measured. In addition the core levels of the oxides and the ruthenium have been characterized. Upon deposition, Ru remains metallic and no chemical alteration of the underlying oxide gates, or interfacial SiO2 in the case of the high- κ thin films, can be detected. However a clear shift of the band edges is measured for all samples due to the creation of an interface dipole at the ruthenium-oxide interface. Using the energy gap, the electron affinity of the oxides, and the ruthenium work function that have been directly measured on these samples, the experimental band offsets are compared to those predicted by the induced gap states model.
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2 2009|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics