B(C6F5)3- vs Al(C6F 5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. Structural, thermochemical, and structural dynamic divergences

Nicholas G. Stahl, Michael R. Salata, Tobin J Marks

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Abstract

The thermodynamic and structural characteristics of Al(C6F 5)3-derived vs B(C6F5) 3-derived group 4 metallocenium ion pairs are quantified. Reaction of 1.0 equiv of B(C6F5)3 or 1.0 or 2.0 equiv of Al(C6F5)3 with rac-C2H 45-Ind)2Zr(CH3)2 (rac-(EBI)Zr(CH3)2) yields rac-(EBI)Zr(CH 3)+H3CB(C6F5) 3 - (1a), rao(EBI)-Zr(CH3)+H 3CAl(C6F5)3 - (1b), and rac-(EBI)Zr2+[H3CAl(C6F5) 3]- 2 (1c), respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 1b indicates the H3CAl(C6F5) 3 - anion coordinates to the metal center via a bridging methyl in a manner similar to B(C6F5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. However, the Zr-(CH3)bridging and Al-(CH3)bridging bond lengths of 1b (2.505(4) Å and 2.026(4) Å, respectively) indicate the methyl group is less completely abstracted in 1b than in typical B(C6F5) 3-derived ion pairs. Ion pair formation enthalpies (ΔH ipf) determined by isoperibol solution calorimetry in toluene from the neutral precursors are -21.9(6) kcal mol-1 (1a), -14.0(15) kcal mol-1 (1b), and -2.1(1) kcal mol-1 (1b→1c), indicating Al(C6F5)3 to have significantly less methide affinity than B(C6F5)3. Analogous experiments with Me2Si(η5-Me4C 5)(t-BuN)Ti(CH3)2 indicate a similar trend. Furthermore, kinetic parameters for ion pair epimerization by cocatalyst exchange (ce) and anion exchange (ae), determined by line-broadening in VT NMR spectra over the range 25-75 °C, are ΔH ce = 22(1) kcal mol-1, ΔS ce = 8.2(4) eu, ΔH ae = 14(2) kcal mol-1, and ΔS ae = -15(2) eu for 1a. Line broadening for 1b is not detectable until just below the temperature where decomposition becomes significant (∼75-80 °C), but estimation of the activation parameters at 72 °C gives ΔH ce ≈ 22 kcal mol-1 and ΔH ae ≈ 16 kcal mol-1, consistent with the bridging methide being more strongly bound to the zirconocenium center than in 1a.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10898-10909
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume127
Issue number31
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 10 2005

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Structural dynamics
Ions
Ion exchange
Anions
Negative ions
Calorimetry
Toluene
Bond length
Thermodynamics
Kinetic parameters
Enthalpy
Metals
Chemical activation
Nuclear magnetic resonance
X-Rays
Decomposition
X rays
Temperature
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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B(C6F5)3- vs Al(C6F 5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. Structural, thermochemical, and structural dynamic divergences. / Stahl, Nicholas G.; Salata, Michael R.; Marks, Tobin J.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 127, No. 31, 10.08.2005, p. 10898-10909.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{e862cb97f4594a8b855cb7cbf0fa1830,
title = "B(C6F5)3- vs Al(C6F 5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. Structural, thermochemical, and structural dynamic divergences",
abstract = "The thermodynamic and structural characteristics of Al(C6F 5)3-derived vs B(C6F5) 3-derived group 4 metallocenium ion pairs are quantified. Reaction of 1.0 equiv of B(C6F5)3 or 1.0 or 2.0 equiv of Al(C6F5)3 with rac-C2H 4(η5-Ind)2Zr(CH3)2 (rac-(EBI)Zr(CH3)2) yields rac-(EBI)Zr(CH 3)+H3CB(C6F5) 3 - (1a), rao(EBI)-Zr(CH3)+H 3CAl(C6F5)3 - (1b), and rac-(EBI)Zr2+[H3CAl(C6F5) 3]- 2 (1c), respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 1b indicates the H3CAl(C6F5) 3 - anion coordinates to the metal center via a bridging methyl in a manner similar to B(C6F5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. However, the Zr-(CH3)bridging and Al-(CH3)bridging bond lengths of 1b (2.505(4) {\AA} and 2.026(4) {\AA}, respectively) indicate the methyl group is less completely abstracted in 1b than in typical B(C6F5) 3-derived ion pairs. Ion pair formation enthalpies (ΔH ipf) determined by isoperibol solution calorimetry in toluene from the neutral precursors are -21.9(6) kcal mol-1 (1a), -14.0(15) kcal mol-1 (1b), and -2.1(1) kcal mol-1 (1b→1c), indicating Al(C6F5)3 to have significantly less methide affinity than B(C6F5)3. Analogous experiments with Me2Si(η5-Me4C 5)(t-BuN)Ti(CH3)2 indicate a similar trend. Furthermore, kinetic parameters for ion pair epimerization by cocatalyst exchange (ce) and anion exchange (ae), determined by line-broadening in VT NMR spectra over the range 25-75 °C, are ΔH‡ ce = 22(1) kcal mol-1, ΔS‡ ce = 8.2(4) eu, ΔH‡ ae = 14(2) kcal mol-1, and ΔS‡ ae = -15(2) eu for 1a. Line broadening for 1b is not detectable until just below the temperature where decomposition becomes significant (∼75-80 °C), but estimation of the activation parameters at 72 °C gives ΔH‡ ce ≈ 22 kcal mol-1 and ΔH‡ ae ≈ 16 kcal mol-1, consistent with the bridging methide being more strongly bound to the zirconocenium center than in 1a.",
author = "Stahl, {Nicholas G.} and Salata, {Michael R.} and Marks, {Tobin J}",
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T1 - B(C6F5)3- vs Al(C6F 5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. Structural, thermochemical, and structural dynamic divergences

AU - Stahl, Nicholas G.

AU - Salata, Michael R.

AU - Marks, Tobin J

PY - 2005/8/10

Y1 - 2005/8/10

N2 - The thermodynamic and structural characteristics of Al(C6F 5)3-derived vs B(C6F5) 3-derived group 4 metallocenium ion pairs are quantified. Reaction of 1.0 equiv of B(C6F5)3 or 1.0 or 2.0 equiv of Al(C6F5)3 with rac-C2H 4(η5-Ind)2Zr(CH3)2 (rac-(EBI)Zr(CH3)2) yields rac-(EBI)Zr(CH 3)+H3CB(C6F5) 3 - (1a), rao(EBI)-Zr(CH3)+H 3CAl(C6F5)3 - (1b), and rac-(EBI)Zr2+[H3CAl(C6F5) 3]- 2 (1c), respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 1b indicates the H3CAl(C6F5) 3 - anion coordinates to the metal center via a bridging methyl in a manner similar to B(C6F5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. However, the Zr-(CH3)bridging and Al-(CH3)bridging bond lengths of 1b (2.505(4) Å and 2.026(4) Å, respectively) indicate the methyl group is less completely abstracted in 1b than in typical B(C6F5) 3-derived ion pairs. Ion pair formation enthalpies (ΔH ipf) determined by isoperibol solution calorimetry in toluene from the neutral precursors are -21.9(6) kcal mol-1 (1a), -14.0(15) kcal mol-1 (1b), and -2.1(1) kcal mol-1 (1b→1c), indicating Al(C6F5)3 to have significantly less methide affinity than B(C6F5)3. Analogous experiments with Me2Si(η5-Me4C 5)(t-BuN)Ti(CH3)2 indicate a similar trend. Furthermore, kinetic parameters for ion pair epimerization by cocatalyst exchange (ce) and anion exchange (ae), determined by line-broadening in VT NMR spectra over the range 25-75 °C, are ΔH‡ ce = 22(1) kcal mol-1, ΔS‡ ce = 8.2(4) eu, ΔH‡ ae = 14(2) kcal mol-1, and ΔS‡ ae = -15(2) eu for 1a. Line broadening for 1b is not detectable until just below the temperature where decomposition becomes significant (∼75-80 °C), but estimation of the activation parameters at 72 °C gives ΔH‡ ce ≈ 22 kcal mol-1 and ΔH‡ ae ≈ 16 kcal mol-1, consistent with the bridging methide being more strongly bound to the zirconocenium center than in 1a.

AB - The thermodynamic and structural characteristics of Al(C6F 5)3-derived vs B(C6F5) 3-derived group 4 metallocenium ion pairs are quantified. Reaction of 1.0 equiv of B(C6F5)3 or 1.0 or 2.0 equiv of Al(C6F5)3 with rac-C2H 4(η5-Ind)2Zr(CH3)2 (rac-(EBI)Zr(CH3)2) yields rac-(EBI)Zr(CH 3)+H3CB(C6F5) 3 - (1a), rao(EBI)-Zr(CH3)+H 3CAl(C6F5)3 - (1b), and rac-(EBI)Zr2+[H3CAl(C6F5) 3]- 2 (1c), respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 1b indicates the H3CAl(C6F5) 3 - anion coordinates to the metal center via a bridging methyl in a manner similar to B(C6F5)3-derived metallocenium ion pairs. However, the Zr-(CH3)bridging and Al-(CH3)bridging bond lengths of 1b (2.505(4) Å and 2.026(4) Å, respectively) indicate the methyl group is less completely abstracted in 1b than in typical B(C6F5) 3-derived ion pairs. Ion pair formation enthalpies (ΔH ipf) determined by isoperibol solution calorimetry in toluene from the neutral precursors are -21.9(6) kcal mol-1 (1a), -14.0(15) kcal mol-1 (1b), and -2.1(1) kcal mol-1 (1b→1c), indicating Al(C6F5)3 to have significantly less methide affinity than B(C6F5)3. Analogous experiments with Me2Si(η5-Me4C 5)(t-BuN)Ti(CH3)2 indicate a similar trend. Furthermore, kinetic parameters for ion pair epimerization by cocatalyst exchange (ce) and anion exchange (ae), determined by line-broadening in VT NMR spectra over the range 25-75 °C, are ΔH‡ ce = 22(1) kcal mol-1, ΔS‡ ce = 8.2(4) eu, ΔH‡ ae = 14(2) kcal mol-1, and ΔS‡ ae = -15(2) eu for 1a. Line broadening for 1b is not detectable until just below the temperature where decomposition becomes significant (∼75-80 °C), but estimation of the activation parameters at 72 °C gives ΔH‡ ce ≈ 22 kcal mol-1 and ΔH‡ ae ≈ 16 kcal mol-1, consistent with the bridging methide being more strongly bound to the zirconocenium center than in 1a.

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