Carbon Films for Use as the Electron Source in a Parallel e-Beam Lithography System

W. I. Milne, K. B.K. Teo, M. Chhowalla, G. A.J. Amaratunga, J. Yuan, J. Robertson, P. Legagneux, G. Pirio, D. Pribat, K. Bouzehouane, W. Bruenger, C. Trautmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The overall aim of this work is to produce a parallel e-beam lithography system using an array of field-emitting microguns independently driven by an active matrix array. This paper will describe the work carried out on optimisation of suitable carbon-based materials for use as the electron emitter source in such a system. From initial experiments on field emission from tetrahedrally bonded amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nanocluster carbon films, it has been deduced that emission occurs from nanometre-size sp2 sites within an insulating sp3 matrix. Hence, we have carried out a series of experiments to investigate the possibility of deliberately producing such sp2 regions within a predominantly sp3 matrix using e-beam irradiation, high energy ion beam irradiation and post deposition plasma processing of ta-C. Unfortunately, although the use of 1GeV uranium ions successfully produced arrays of sp2 rich regions on the required nanometre scale, no preferential field emission from such sites could be obtained. The final series of experiments were thence carried out using aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the electron sources. Results on aligned CNTs, grown using a dc plasma technique and a Ni catalyst, are presented. Both the diameter and length of the CNTs are dependent upon the thickness of the catalytic layer used. Field emission from an array of CNTs was obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-247
Number of pages13
JournalNew Diamond and Frontier Carbon Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Diamond-like carbon
  • Field emission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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