Carrier generation and inherent off-stoichiometry in Zn, Sn codoped indium oxide (ZITO) bulk and thin-film specimens

Steven P. Harvey, Thomas O. Mason, D. Bruce Buchholz, Robert P.H. Chang, Christoph Körber, Andreas Klein

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31 Citations (Scopus)


Electrical studies of the Zn, Sn codoped bixbyite (In2O 3) phase (ZITO), a promising alternative to indium-tin oxide (ITO) for transparent conductor applications, indicate that an inherent cation off-stoichiometry in favor of Sn donors versus Zn acceptors dominates the defect chemistry of this important transparent conducting oxide. This was shown by bulk phase diagram and conductivity studies, thin-film electrical/optical measurements, and photoelectron spectroscopy on both bulk and thin-film specimens. The Sn-excess character explains the persistent n-type behavior of bulk ZITO, the relative redox insensitivity of codoped compositions, the existence of "special" (optimized conductivity) compositions in phase space for pulsed laser-deposited films, and the propensity for surface chemical depletion in both bulk and thin-film specimens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-472
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2008


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry

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