The use of Ge in semiconductor electronics has been constrained by the lack of a simple method of passivating the crystal surface. Toward that end, we have explored the utility of chemically bonded hydrocarbon monolayers. Alkylated Ge(111) surfaces have been prepared by addition of 1-alkenes to the H-terminated Ge(111) surface as well as by a two-step halogenation/alkylation procedure. The chemical compositions of the resulting methyl-, ethyl-, and decyl-terminated surfaces have been evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal addition of 1-decene produced hydrophobic surfaces with 0.3 ± 0.1 monolayer of Ge oxide detected by XPS, whereas no oxide was observed on the methyl-, ethyl-, or decyl-terminated surfaces that were prepared using the two-step halogenation/alkylation method. Methyl-terminated Ge(111) surfaces prepared by the two-step method displayed a well-resolved C 1s XPS peak at a binding energy of 284 eV, consistent with carbon bonded to a less electronegative element such as Ge. The electronic properties of all of the alkylated surfaces were characterized by measurements of the surface recombination velocity as a function of an externally applied gate voltage. Treatment of HF-etched Ge(111) surfaces with Br2 vapor, followed by reaction with alkylmagnesium or alkyllithium reagents, yielded air-stable surfaces that had surface recombination velocities of 100 cm s-1 or less under flat-band conditions. The field-dependent surface recombination velocity experiments indicated that, in contact with air, methyl-terminated n-type Ge(111) samples had a negative surface potential approaching 300 mV, in contrast to the oxidized Ge(111) surface, which exhibited a strongly positive surface potential under the same conditions. Mercury contacts to n-type methyl-, ethyl-, or decyl-terminated Ge(111) substrates that were alkylated using the two-step method formed rectifying junctions with barrier heights of 0.6 ± 0.1 eV, whereas no measurable rectification was observed for Hg contacts to p-type Ge(111) substrates that were alkylated by the two-step method, to n-type Ge(111) substrates that were alkylated through addition of 1-decene, or to oxidized n-type Ge(111) samples.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films