Chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the "molecular metals" produced by iodination of Nickel Phthalocyanine

Charles J. Schramm, Raymond P. Scaringe, Djordje R. Stojakovic, Brian M. Hoffman, James A. Ibers, Tobin J Marks

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Abstract

This paper presents a detailed study of the solid-state chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the materials which result from treating nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) with elemental iodine. A range of NiPcIx stoichiometries is obtained where x = 0 to ca. 3.0; electrical conductivities of compressed polycrystalline samples are comparable with those of other "molecular metals". Single crystals were obtained for NiPcI1.0. These crystallize in the space group D4h2-P4/mcc, with two formula units in a unit cell having dimensions a = 13.936 (6), c = 6.488 (3) Å. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of 65 variables gave a final value of the conventional R index (on F) of 0.042 for 375 reflections having Fo2 > 3σ(Fo2). The crystal structure consists of stacked, planar NiPc units (staggered by 39.5°) and disordered chains of iodine atoms extending in the c direction. The NiPc units have crystallographically imposed symmetry 4/m. The interplanar Ni-Ni separation is 3.244 (2) Å, and the intramolecular Ni-N distance, 1.887 (6) Å. Analysis of the diffuse scattering pattern arising from disordered iodine chains reveals that iodine is present as I3-. An I-I distance of 3.00 Å and a I⋯I distance of 3.72 Å are derived from the diffuse scattering. Resonance Raman and iodine-129 Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate that iodine is present predominantly if not exclusively as I3- for all NiPcIx where x ≤ 3. Optical spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction studies of the x ≠ 1.0 phases suggest that mixtures of several discrete phases are present. Single-crystal electron spin resonance studies (ESR) of NiPcI1.0 reveal that the iodine oxidation is ligand centered yielding π radical cations. The charge distribution thus can best be represented as [NiIIPc]0.33+(I3-)0.33, although there is ca. 0.002 unit of charge back-transferred from each I3- unit to the metallomacrocycle stack. Susceptibility measurements by ESR and static techniques can be interpreted in terms of a narrow bandwidth metal (ca. 0.37 eV) and a significant contribution from van Vleck paramagnetism. The electrical conductivity of NiPcI1.0 crystals has been investigated by four-probe techniques. Room-temperature conductivities along the crystallographic stacking direction are in the range 260-750 Ω-1 cm-1 and carrier mean free paths are in the range 3.3-8.2 Å. The temperature dependence of the conductivity is metallic (ρ ∼ T1.9±0.2) down to ca. 55 K, at which point there occurs an abrupt reduction in conductivity. Neither the resonance Raman of the I3-, the ESR line width, nor the magnetic susceptibility is sensitive to this transition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6702-6713
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume102
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 1980

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Halogenation
Nickel
Iodine
Transport properties
Charge transfer
Metals
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Paramagnetic resonance
Electric Conductivity
Single crystals
Scattering
Paramagnetism
Powder Diffraction
Temperature
Charge distribution
phthalocyanine
Least-Squares Analysis
Magnetic susceptibility
X-Ray Diffraction
Stoichiometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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Chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the "molecular metals" produced by iodination of Nickel Phthalocyanine. / Schramm, Charles J.; Scaringe, Raymond P.; Stojakovic, Djordje R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Ibers, James A.; Marks, Tobin J.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 102, No. 22, 1980, p. 6702-6713.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schramm, Charles J. ; Scaringe, Raymond P. ; Stojakovic, Djordje R. ; Hoffman, Brian M. ; Ibers, James A. ; Marks, Tobin J. / Chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the "molecular metals" produced by iodination of Nickel Phthalocyanine. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1980 ; Vol. 102, No. 22. pp. 6702-6713.
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abstract = "This paper presents a detailed study of the solid-state chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the materials which result from treating nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) with elemental iodine. A range of NiPcIx stoichiometries is obtained where x = 0 to ca. 3.0; electrical conductivities of compressed polycrystalline samples are comparable with those of other {"}molecular metals{"}. Single crystals were obtained for NiPcI1.0. These crystallize in the space group D4h2-P4/mcc, with two formula units in a unit cell having dimensions a = 13.936 (6), c = 6.488 (3) {\AA}. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of 65 variables gave a final value of the conventional R index (on F) of 0.042 for 375 reflections having Fo2 > 3σ(Fo2). The crystal structure consists of stacked, planar NiPc units (staggered by 39.5°) and disordered chains of iodine atoms extending in the c direction. The NiPc units have crystallographically imposed symmetry 4/m. The interplanar Ni-Ni separation is 3.244 (2) {\AA}, and the intramolecular Ni-N distance, 1.887 (6) {\AA}. Analysis of the diffuse scattering pattern arising from disordered iodine chains reveals that iodine is present as I3-. An I-I distance of 3.00 {\AA} and a I⋯I distance of 3.72 {\AA} are derived from the diffuse scattering. Resonance Raman and iodine-129 M{\"o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate that iodine is present predominantly if not exclusively as I3- for all NiPcIx where x ≤ 3. Optical spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction studies of the x ≠ 1.0 phases suggest that mixtures of several discrete phases are present. Single-crystal electron spin resonance studies (ESR) of NiPcI1.0 reveal that the iodine oxidation is ligand centered yielding π radical cations. The charge distribution thus can best be represented as [NiIIPc]0.33+(I3-)0.33, although there is ca. 0.002 unit of charge back-transferred from each I3- unit to the metallomacrocycle stack. Susceptibility measurements by ESR and static techniques can be interpreted in terms of a narrow bandwidth metal (ca. 0.37 eV) and a significant contribution from van Vleck paramagnetism. The electrical conductivity of NiPcI1.0 crystals has been investigated by four-probe techniques. Room-temperature conductivities along the crystallographic stacking direction are in the range 260-750 Ω-1 cm-1 and carrier mean free paths are in the range 3.3-8.2 {\AA}. The temperature dependence of the conductivity is metallic (ρ ∼ T1.9±0.2) down to ca. 55 K, at which point there occurs an abrupt reduction in conductivity. Neither the resonance Raman of the I3-, the ESR line width, nor the magnetic susceptibility is sensitive to this transition.",
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T1 - Chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the "molecular metals" produced by iodination of Nickel Phthalocyanine

AU - Schramm, Charles J.

AU - Scaringe, Raymond P.

AU - Stojakovic, Djordje R.

AU - Hoffman, Brian M.

AU - Ibers, James A.

AU - Marks, Tobin J

PY - 1980

Y1 - 1980

N2 - This paper presents a detailed study of the solid-state chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the materials which result from treating nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) with elemental iodine. A range of NiPcIx stoichiometries is obtained where x = 0 to ca. 3.0; electrical conductivities of compressed polycrystalline samples are comparable with those of other "molecular metals". Single crystals were obtained for NiPcI1.0. These crystallize in the space group D4h2-P4/mcc, with two formula units in a unit cell having dimensions a = 13.936 (6), c = 6.488 (3) Å. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of 65 variables gave a final value of the conventional R index (on F) of 0.042 for 375 reflections having Fo2 > 3σ(Fo2). The crystal structure consists of stacked, planar NiPc units (staggered by 39.5°) and disordered chains of iodine atoms extending in the c direction. The NiPc units have crystallographically imposed symmetry 4/m. The interplanar Ni-Ni separation is 3.244 (2) Å, and the intramolecular Ni-N distance, 1.887 (6) Å. Analysis of the diffuse scattering pattern arising from disordered iodine chains reveals that iodine is present as I3-. An I-I distance of 3.00 Å and a I⋯I distance of 3.72 Å are derived from the diffuse scattering. Resonance Raman and iodine-129 Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate that iodine is present predominantly if not exclusively as I3- for all NiPcIx where x ≤ 3. Optical spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction studies of the x ≠ 1.0 phases suggest that mixtures of several discrete phases are present. Single-crystal electron spin resonance studies (ESR) of NiPcI1.0 reveal that the iodine oxidation is ligand centered yielding π radical cations. The charge distribution thus can best be represented as [NiIIPc]0.33+(I3-)0.33, although there is ca. 0.002 unit of charge back-transferred from each I3- unit to the metallomacrocycle stack. Susceptibility measurements by ESR and static techniques can be interpreted in terms of a narrow bandwidth metal (ca. 0.37 eV) and a significant contribution from van Vleck paramagnetism. The electrical conductivity of NiPcI1.0 crystals has been investigated by four-probe techniques. Room-temperature conductivities along the crystallographic stacking direction are in the range 260-750 Ω-1 cm-1 and carrier mean free paths are in the range 3.3-8.2 Å. The temperature dependence of the conductivity is metallic (ρ ∼ T1.9±0.2) down to ca. 55 K, at which point there occurs an abrupt reduction in conductivity. Neither the resonance Raman of the I3-, the ESR line width, nor the magnetic susceptibility is sensitive to this transition.

AB - This paper presents a detailed study of the solid-state chemical, spectral, structural, and charge transport properties of the materials which result from treating nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) with elemental iodine. A range of NiPcIx stoichiometries is obtained where x = 0 to ca. 3.0; electrical conductivities of compressed polycrystalline samples are comparable with those of other "molecular metals". Single crystals were obtained for NiPcI1.0. These crystallize in the space group D4h2-P4/mcc, with two formula units in a unit cell having dimensions a = 13.936 (6), c = 6.488 (3) Å. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of 65 variables gave a final value of the conventional R index (on F) of 0.042 for 375 reflections having Fo2 > 3σ(Fo2). The crystal structure consists of stacked, planar NiPc units (staggered by 39.5°) and disordered chains of iodine atoms extending in the c direction. The NiPc units have crystallographically imposed symmetry 4/m. The interplanar Ni-Ni separation is 3.244 (2) Å, and the intramolecular Ni-N distance, 1.887 (6) Å. Analysis of the diffuse scattering pattern arising from disordered iodine chains reveals that iodine is present as I3-. An I-I distance of 3.00 Å and a I⋯I distance of 3.72 Å are derived from the diffuse scattering. Resonance Raman and iodine-129 Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate that iodine is present predominantly if not exclusively as I3- for all NiPcIx where x ≤ 3. Optical spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction studies of the x ≠ 1.0 phases suggest that mixtures of several discrete phases are present. Single-crystal electron spin resonance studies (ESR) of NiPcI1.0 reveal that the iodine oxidation is ligand centered yielding π radical cations. The charge distribution thus can best be represented as [NiIIPc]0.33+(I3-)0.33, although there is ca. 0.002 unit of charge back-transferred from each I3- unit to the metallomacrocycle stack. Susceptibility measurements by ESR and static techniques can be interpreted in terms of a narrow bandwidth metal (ca. 0.37 eV) and a significant contribution from van Vleck paramagnetism. The electrical conductivity of NiPcI1.0 crystals has been investigated by four-probe techniques. Room-temperature conductivities along the crystallographic stacking direction are in the range 260-750 Ω-1 cm-1 and carrier mean free paths are in the range 3.3-8.2 Å. The temperature dependence of the conductivity is metallic (ρ ∼ T1.9±0.2) down to ca. 55 K, at which point there occurs an abrupt reduction in conductivity. Neither the resonance Raman of the I3-, the ESR line width, nor the magnetic susceptibility is sensitive to this transition.

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