Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene

Md Zakir Hossain, James E. Johns, Kirk H. Bevan, Hunter J. Karmel, Yu Teng Liang, Shinya Yoshimoto, Kozo Mukai, Tatanori Koitaya, Jun Yoshinobu, Maki Kawai, Amanda M. Lear, Larry L. Kesmodel, Steven L. Tait, Mark C Hersam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

196 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With its exceptional charge mobility, graphene holds great promise for applications in next-generation electronics. In an effort to tailor its properties and interfacial characteristics, the chemical functionalization of graphene is being actively pursued. The oxidation of graphene via the Hummers method is most widely used in current studies, although the chemical inhomogeneity and irreversibility of the resulting graphene oxide compromises its use in high-performance devices. Here, we present an alternative approach for oxidizing epitaxial graphene using atomic oxygen in ultrahigh vacuum. Atomic-resolution characterization with scanning tunnelling microscopy is quantitatively compared to density functional theory, showing that ultrahigh-vacuum oxidization results in uniform epoxy functionalization. Furthermore, this oxidation is shown to be fully reversible at temperatures as low as 260 °C using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. In this manner, ultrahigh-vacuum oxidation overcomes the limitations of Hummers-method graphene oxide, thus creating new opportunities for the study and application of chemically functionalized graphene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-309
Number of pages5
JournalNature Chemistry
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012

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Graphene
Oxidation
Ultrahigh vacuum
Scanning tunneling microscopy
Oxides
Density functional theory
Electronic equipment
Oxygen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Hossain, M. Z., Johns, J. E., Bevan, K. H., Karmel, H. J., Liang, Y. T., Yoshimoto, S., ... Hersam, M. C. (2012). Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene. Nature Chemistry, 4(4), 305-309. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1269

Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene. / Hossain, Md Zakir; Johns, James E.; Bevan, Kirk H.; Karmel, Hunter J.; Liang, Yu Teng; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Mukai, Kozo; Koitaya, Tatanori; Yoshinobu, Jun; Kawai, Maki; Lear, Amanda M.; Kesmodel, Larry L.; Tait, Steven L.; Hersam, Mark C.

In: Nature Chemistry, Vol. 4, No. 4, 04.2012, p. 305-309.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hossain, MZ, Johns, JE, Bevan, KH, Karmel, HJ, Liang, YT, Yoshimoto, S, Mukai, K, Koitaya, T, Yoshinobu, J, Kawai, M, Lear, AM, Kesmodel, LL, Tait, SL & Hersam, MC 2012, 'Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene', Nature Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 305-309. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1269
Hossain MZ, Johns JE, Bevan KH, Karmel HJ, Liang YT, Yoshimoto S et al. Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene. Nature Chemistry. 2012 Apr;4(4):305-309. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1269
Hossain, Md Zakir ; Johns, James E. ; Bevan, Kirk H. ; Karmel, Hunter J. ; Liang, Yu Teng ; Yoshimoto, Shinya ; Mukai, Kozo ; Koitaya, Tatanori ; Yoshinobu, Jun ; Kawai, Maki ; Lear, Amanda M. ; Kesmodel, Larry L. ; Tait, Steven L. ; Hersam, Mark C. / Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene. In: Nature Chemistry. 2012 ; Vol. 4, No. 4. pp. 305-309.
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