Chloride regulation of enzyme turnover: Application to the role of chloride in photosystem II

Ravi Pokhrel, Iain L. McConnell, Gary W. Brudvig

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49 Citations (Scopus)


Chloride-dependent α-amylases, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and photosystem II (PSII) are activated by bound chloride. Chloride-binding sites in these enzymes contain a positively charged Arg or Lys residue crucial for chloride binding. In α-amylases and ACE, removal of chloride from the binding site triggers formation of a salt bridge between the positively charged Arg or Lys residue involved in chloride binding and a nearby carboxylate residue. The mechanism for chloride activation in ACE and chloride-dependent α-amylases is 2-fold: (i) correctly positioning catalytic residues or other residues involved in stabilizing the enzyme-substrate complex and (ii) fine-tuning of the pKa of a catalytic residue. By using examples of how chloride activates α-amylases and ACE, we can gain insight into the potential mechanisms by which chloride functions in PSII. Recent structural evidence from cyanobacterial PSII indicates that there is at least one chloride-binding site in the vicinity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Here we propose that, in the absence of chloride, a salt bridge between D2:K317 and D1:D61 (and/or D1:E333) is formed. This can cause a conformational shift of D1:D61 and lower the pKa of this residue, making it an inefficient proton acceptor during the S-state cycle. Movement of the D1:E333 ligand and the adjacent D1:H332 ligand due to chloride removal could also explain the observed change in the magnetic properties of the manganese cluster in the OEC upon chloride depletion.(Figure Presented)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2725-2734
Number of pages10
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Apr 12 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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