Combined linear response quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamics (QM/ED) method for the calculation of surface-enhanced Raman spectra

Jonathan Mullin, George C. Schatz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)


A multiscale method is presented that allows for evaluation of plasmon-enhanced optical properties of nanoparticle/molecule complexes with no additional cost compared to standard electrodynamics (ED) and linear response quantum mechanics (QM) calculations for the particle and molecule, respectively, but with polarization and orientation effects automatically described. The approach first calculates the total field of the nanoparticle by ED using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The field intensity in the frequency domain as a function of distance from the nanoparticle is calculated via a Fourier transform. The molecular optical properties are then calculated with QM in the frequency domain in the presence of the total field of the nanoparticle. Back-coupling due to dipolar reradiation effects is included in the single-molecule plane wave approximation. The effects of polarization and partial orientation averaging are considered. The QM/ED method is evaluated for the well-characterized test case of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of pyridine bound to silver, as well as for the resonant Raman chromophore rhodamine 6G. The electromagnetic contribution to the enhancement factor is 10 4 for pyridine and 10 2 for rhodamine 6G.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1931-1938
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this