Constrained geometry organoactinides as versatile catalysts for the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization of primary and secondary amines having diverse tethered C-C unsaturation

Bryan D. Stubbert, Tobin J Marks

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Abstract

A series of "constrained geometry" organoactinide complexes, (CGC)An(NMe)2 (CGC = Me2-Si(η5-Me 4C5)(tBuN); An = Th, 1; U, 2), has been prepared via efficient in situ, two-step protodeamination routes in good yields and high purity. Both 1 and 2 are quantitatively converted to the neutrally charged, solvent-free dichlorides (1-Cl2, 2-Cl2) and slightly more soluble diiodides (1-I2, 2-I2) with excess Me3Si-X (X = Cl, I) in non-coordinating solvents. The new complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and (for 1 and 2) single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing substantially increased metal coordinative unsaturation vs the corresponding Me2SiCp″ 2AnR2 (Cp″ = η5-Me4C 5; An = Th, R = CH2-(SiMe3), 3; An = U, R = CH2Ph, 4) and Cp′2AnR2 (Cp′ = η5-Me5C5 ; An = Th, R = CH 2(SiMe3), 5; An = U, R = CH2(SiMe3), 6) complexes. Complexes 1-6 exhibit broad applicability for the intramolecular hydroamination of diverse C-C unsaturations, including terminal and internal aminoalkenes (primary and secondary amines), aminoalkynes (primary and secondary amines), aminoallenes, and aminodienes. Large turnover frequencies (N t up to 3000 h-1) and high regioselectivities (≥95%) are observed throughout, along with moderate to high diastereoselectivities (up to 90% trans ring closures). With several noteworthy exceptions, reactivity trends track relative 5f ionic radii and ancillary ligand coordinative unsaturation. Reactivity patterns and activation parameters are consistent with a reaction pathway proceeding via turnover-limiting C=C/C=C insertion into the An-N σ-bond.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4253-4271
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume129
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 11 2007

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Cyclization
Amines
Regioselectivity
Catalysts
Geometry
X-Ray Diffraction
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Metals
Chemical activation
Ligands
Single crystals
X ray diffraction
Chemical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

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title = "Constrained geometry organoactinides as versatile catalysts for the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization of primary and secondary amines having diverse tethered C-C unsaturation",
abstract = "A series of {"}constrained geometry{"} organoactinide complexes, (CGC)An(NMe)2 (CGC = Me2-Si(η5-Me 4C5)(tBuN); An = Th, 1; U, 2), has been prepared via efficient in situ, two-step protodeamination routes in good yields and high purity. Both 1 and 2 are quantitatively converted to the neutrally charged, solvent-free dichlorides (1-Cl2, 2-Cl2) and slightly more soluble diiodides (1-I2, 2-I2) with excess Me3Si-X (X = Cl, I) in non-coordinating solvents. The new complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and (for 1 and 2) single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing substantially increased metal coordinative unsaturation vs the corresponding Me2SiCp″ 2AnR2 (Cp″ = η5-Me4C 5; An = Th, R = CH2-(SiMe3), 3; An = U, R = CH2Ph, 4) and Cp′2AnR2 (Cp′ = η5-Me5C5 ; An = Th, R = CH 2(SiMe3), 5; An = U, R = CH2(SiMe3), 6) complexes. Complexes 1-6 exhibit broad applicability for the intramolecular hydroamination of diverse C-C unsaturations, including terminal and internal aminoalkenes (primary and secondary amines), aminoalkynes (primary and secondary amines), aminoallenes, and aminodienes. Large turnover frequencies (N t up to 3000 h-1) and high regioselectivities (≥95{\%}) are observed throughout, along with moderate to high diastereoselectivities (up to 90{\%} trans ring closures). With several noteworthy exceptions, reactivity trends track relative 5f ionic radii and ancillary ligand coordinative unsaturation. Reactivity patterns and activation parameters are consistent with a reaction pathway proceeding via turnover-limiting C=C/C=C insertion into the An-N σ-bond.",
author = "Stubbert, {Bryan D.} and Marks, {Tobin J}",
year = "2007",
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T1 - Constrained geometry organoactinides as versatile catalysts for the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization of primary and secondary amines having diverse tethered C-C unsaturation

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N2 - A series of "constrained geometry" organoactinide complexes, (CGC)An(NMe)2 (CGC = Me2-Si(η5-Me 4C5)(tBuN); An = Th, 1; U, 2), has been prepared via efficient in situ, two-step protodeamination routes in good yields and high purity. Both 1 and 2 are quantitatively converted to the neutrally charged, solvent-free dichlorides (1-Cl2, 2-Cl2) and slightly more soluble diiodides (1-I2, 2-I2) with excess Me3Si-X (X = Cl, I) in non-coordinating solvents. The new complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and (for 1 and 2) single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing substantially increased metal coordinative unsaturation vs the corresponding Me2SiCp″ 2AnR2 (Cp″ = η5-Me4C 5; An = Th, R = CH2-(SiMe3), 3; An = U, R = CH2Ph, 4) and Cp′2AnR2 (Cp′ = η5-Me5C5 ; An = Th, R = CH 2(SiMe3), 5; An = U, R = CH2(SiMe3), 6) complexes. Complexes 1-6 exhibit broad applicability for the intramolecular hydroamination of diverse C-C unsaturations, including terminal and internal aminoalkenes (primary and secondary amines), aminoalkynes (primary and secondary amines), aminoallenes, and aminodienes. Large turnover frequencies (N t up to 3000 h-1) and high regioselectivities (≥95%) are observed throughout, along with moderate to high diastereoselectivities (up to 90% trans ring closures). With several noteworthy exceptions, reactivity trends track relative 5f ionic radii and ancillary ligand coordinative unsaturation. Reactivity patterns and activation parameters are consistent with a reaction pathway proceeding via turnover-limiting C=C/C=C insertion into the An-N σ-bond.

AB - A series of "constrained geometry" organoactinide complexes, (CGC)An(NMe)2 (CGC = Me2-Si(η5-Me 4C5)(tBuN); An = Th, 1; U, 2), has been prepared via efficient in situ, two-step protodeamination routes in good yields and high purity. Both 1 and 2 are quantitatively converted to the neutrally charged, solvent-free dichlorides (1-Cl2, 2-Cl2) and slightly more soluble diiodides (1-I2, 2-I2) with excess Me3Si-X (X = Cl, I) in non-coordinating solvents. The new complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and (for 1 and 2) single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing substantially increased metal coordinative unsaturation vs the corresponding Me2SiCp″ 2AnR2 (Cp″ = η5-Me4C 5; An = Th, R = CH2-(SiMe3), 3; An = U, R = CH2Ph, 4) and Cp′2AnR2 (Cp′ = η5-Me5C5 ; An = Th, R = CH 2(SiMe3), 5; An = U, R = CH2(SiMe3), 6) complexes. Complexes 1-6 exhibit broad applicability for the intramolecular hydroamination of diverse C-C unsaturations, including terminal and internal aminoalkenes (primary and secondary amines), aminoalkynes (primary and secondary amines), aminoallenes, and aminodienes. Large turnover frequencies (N t up to 3000 h-1) and high regioselectivities (≥95%) are observed throughout, along with moderate to high diastereoselectivities (up to 90% trans ring closures). With several noteworthy exceptions, reactivity trends track relative 5f ionic radii and ancillary ligand coordinative unsaturation. Reactivity patterns and activation parameters are consistent with a reaction pathway proceeding via turnover-limiting C=C/C=C insertion into the An-N σ-bond.

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