Controlled Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Structuring by Memory-Based, Sequential Wrinkling

Won Kyu Lee, Clifford J. Engel, Mark D. Huntington, Jingtian Hu, Teri W. Odom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes how a memory-based, sequential wrinkling process can transform flat polystyrene sheets into multiscale, three-dimensional hierarchical textures. Multiple cycles of plasma-mediated skin growth followed by directional strain relief of the substrate resulted in hierarchical architectures with characteristic generational (G) features. Independent control over wrinkle wavelength and wrinkle orientation for each G was achieved by tuning plasma treatment time and strain-relief direction for each cycle. Lotus-type superhydrophobicity was demonstrated on three-dimensional G1-G2-G3 hierarchical wrinkles as well as tunable superhydrophilicity on these same substrates after oxygen plasma. This materials system provides a general approach for nanomanufacturing based on bottom-up sequential wrinkling that will benefit a diverse range of applications and especially those that require large area (>cm2), multiscale, three-dimensional patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5624-5629
Number of pages6
JournalNano letters
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 12 2015


  • Nanowrinkles
  • hierarchical texturing
  • polymers
  • polystyrene
  • superhydrophilicity
  • superhydrophobicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

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