CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by iridium complexes with a proton-responsive ligand

Naoya Onishi, Shaoan Xu, Yuichi Manaka, Yuki Suna, Wan Hui Wang, James T. Muckerman, Etsuko Fujita, Yuichiro Himeda

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77 Citations (Scopus)


The catalytic cycle for the production of formic acid by CO2 hydrogenation and the reverse reaction have received renewed attention because they are viewed as offering a viable scheme for hydrogen storage and release. In this Forum Article, CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by iridium complexes bearing sophisticated N^N-bidentate ligands is reported. We describe how a ligand containing hydroxy groups as proton-responsive substituents enhances the catalytic performance by an electronic effect of the oxyanions and a pendent-base effect through secondary coordination sphere interactions. In particular, [(Cp∗IrCl)2(TH2BPM)]Cl2 (Cp∗ = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; TH2BPM = 4,4′,6,6′-tetrahydroxy-2,2′-bipyrimidine) enormously promotes the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 in basic water by these synergistic effects under atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. Additionally, newly designed complexes with azole-type ligands were applied to CO2 hydrogenation. The catalytic efficiencies of the azole-type complexes were much higher than that of the unsubstituted bipyridine complex [Cp∗Ir(bpy)(OH2)]SO4. Furthermore, the introduction of one or more hydroxy groups into ligands such as 2-pyrazolyl-6-hydroxypyridine, 2-pyrazolyl-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine, and 4-pyrazolyl-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine enhanced the catalytic activity. It is clear that the incorporation of additional electron-donating functionalities into proton-responsive azole-type ligands is effective for promoting further enhanced hydrogenation of CO2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5114-5123
Number of pages10
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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