Defect chemistry and physical properties of transparent conducting oxides in the CdO-In2O3-SnO2 system

Thomas O Mason, G. B. Gonzalez, D. R. Kammler, N. Mansourian-Hadavi, B. J. Ingram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


Combined solid state phase diagram studies and physical property measurements of the various n-type transparent conducting oxide (TCO) phases in the CdO-In2O3-SnO2 system have been carried out. The 1175 °C (air) subsolidus phase diagram has been established, including solid solution limits for binary and ternary compositions. From these limits and electrical property measurements vs. doping and degree of reduction, the prevailing defect mechanisms can be deduced. In addition to intrinsic (native) defects (e.g. oxygen vacancies) and extrinsic donor-doping of the end member compounds (e.g. SnIn. in In2O3), ternary solid solutions exhibit both isovalent doping (e.g. [Cd′In] = [SnIn.] in bixbyite, spinel) and donor-to-acceptor imbalance (e.g. [SnIn.] > [Cd′In] in bixbyite, spinel). Aliovalent doping can also lead to the formation of point defect associates, as in Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO), as confirmed by combined Rietveld analyses of X-ray and neutron diffraction data. Cation exchange between sublattices in the spinel phase plays an important role in determining phase stability and band structure. The physical properties of the TCO phases in the CdO-In2O3-SnO2 system are presented for both bulk ceramics and thin films.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-114
Number of pages9
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 22 2002


  • Electrical properties
  • Optical properties
  • Phase diagram
  • Point defects
  • Transparent conducting oxides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces

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