Defect Cluster Aggregation and Nonreducibility in Tin-Doped Indium Oxide

Oliver Warschkow, Donald E. Ellis, Gabriela B. González, Thomas O Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The conductivity of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), a transparent conductor, is critically dependent on the amount of tin doping and oxygen partial pressure during preparation and annealing. Frank and Köstlin (Appl. Phys. A, 27, 197-206 (1982)) have rationalized the observed carrier concentration dependence by postulating the formation of two types of neutral defect clusters at medium tin-doping levels: "reducible" and "nonreducible" defect clusters, so named to indicate their ability to create carriers under reduction. According to Frank and Köstlin, both clusters are composed of one oxygen interstitial and two tin atoms substituting for indium, positioned in nonnearest and nearest coordination, respectively. This work, seeking to distinguish reducible and nonreducible clusters by means of an atomistic model, finds only a weak correlation of oxygen interstitial binding energies with the relative positioning of tin dopants. Instead, the number of tin dopants in the vicinity of the interstitial has a much larger effect on how strongly it is bound, a simple consequence of Coulomb interactions. We postulate that oxygen interstitials become nonreducible when clustered with three or more Sn In. This occurs at higher doping levels as reducible clusters aggregate and share tin atoms. A simple probabilistic model, estimating the average number of clusters so aggregated, yields a qualitatively correct description of the carrier density in reduced ITO as a function of tin-doping level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1707-1711
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Volume86
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2003

Fingerprint

Tin
Indium
Agglomeration
Defects
Oxides
Doping (additives)
Oxygen
Carrier concentration
Atoms
indium oxide
Coulomb interactions
Binding energy
Partial pressure
Annealing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites

Cite this

Defect Cluster Aggregation and Nonreducibility in Tin-Doped Indium Oxide. / Warschkow, Oliver; Ellis, Donald E.; González, Gabriela B.; Mason, Thomas O.

In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 86, No. 10, 10.2003, p. 1707-1711.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Warschkow, O, Ellis, DE, González, GB & Mason, TO 2003, 'Defect Cluster Aggregation and Nonreducibility in Tin-Doped Indium Oxide', Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 1707-1711.
Warschkow, Oliver ; Ellis, Donald E. ; González, Gabriela B. ; Mason, Thomas O. / Defect Cluster Aggregation and Nonreducibility in Tin-Doped Indium Oxide. In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 2003 ; Vol. 86, No. 10. pp. 1707-1711.
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