Designed bithiophene-based interfacial layer for high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Importance of interfacial energy level matching

Alexander W. Hains, Charusheela Ramanan, Michael D. Irwin, Jun Liu, Michael R Wasielewski, Tobin J Marks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This contribution describes the design, synthesis, characterization, and organic photovoltaic (OPV) device implementation of a novel interfacial layer (IFL) for insertion between the anode and active layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C 61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The IFL precursor, 5,5′-bis[(p- trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]- 2,2′-bithiophene (PABTSi 2), covalently anchors to the Sn-doped In 2O 3 (ITO) surface via the - SiCl 3 groups and incorporates a bithiophene unit to align the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy with that of P3HT (5.0 eV). The synthesis and subsequent electrochemical analysis of PABTSi 2 indicates a HOMO energy of 4.9 eV, while the lowest uoccupied molecular orbital level remains sufficiently high, at 2.2 eV, to effectively block electron leakage to the OPV ITO anode. For the P3HT:PCBM OPV fabrication, PABTSi 2 is used as a spin-coated cross-linked (via - SiCl 3 hydrolysis and condensation) 1:2 blend with poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-A/-[4- (3- methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB). Such devices exhibit an average power conversion efficiency of 3.14%, a fill factor of 62.7%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.54 V, and a short-circuit current of 9.31 mA/cm 2, parameters rivaling those of optimized PEDOT:PSS- based devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-185
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume2
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 27 2010

Fingerprint

Photovoltaic cells
Molecular orbitals
Interfacial energy
Electron energy levels
Heterojunctions
Butyric acid
Butyric Acid
Esters
Anodes
Diphenylamine
Open circuit voltage
Anchors
Short circuit currents
Conversion efficiency
Condensation
Hydrolysis
Solar cells
Fabrication
Electrons
poly(3-hexylthiophene)

Keywords

  • Electron blocking
  • Interface
  • Organic photovoltaics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Designed bithiophene-based interfacial layer for high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Importance of interfacial energy level matching. / Hains, Alexander W.; Ramanan, Charusheela; Irwin, Michael D.; Liu, Jun; Wasielewski, Michael R; Marks, Tobin J.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 2, No. 1, 27.01.2010, p. 175-185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "This contribution describes the design, synthesis, characterization, and organic photovoltaic (OPV) device implementation of a novel interfacial layer (IFL) for insertion between the anode and active layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C 61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The IFL precursor, 5,5′-bis[(p- trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]- 2,2′-bithiophene (PABTSi 2), covalently anchors to the Sn-doped In 2O 3 (ITO) surface via the - SiCl 3 groups and incorporates a bithiophene unit to align the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy with that of P3HT (5.0 eV). The synthesis and subsequent electrochemical analysis of PABTSi 2 indicates a HOMO energy of 4.9 eV, while the lowest uoccupied molecular orbital level remains sufficiently high, at 2.2 eV, to effectively block electron leakage to the OPV ITO anode. For the P3HT:PCBM OPV fabrication, PABTSi 2 is used as a spin-coated cross-linked (via - SiCl 3 hydrolysis and condensation) 1:2 blend with poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-A/-[4- (3- methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB). Such devices exhibit an average power conversion efficiency of 3.14{\%}, a fill factor of 62.7{\%}, an open-circuit voltage of 0.54 V, and a short-circuit current of 9.31 mA/cm 2, parameters rivaling those of optimized PEDOT:PSS- based devices.",
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