Dopant Concentration Controls Quasi-Static Electrostrictive Strain Response of Ceria Ceramics

Maxim Varenik, Juan Claudio Nino, Ellen Wachtel, Sangtae Kim, Ori Yeheskel, Nimrod Yavo, Igor Lubomirsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Electromechanically active ceramic materials, piezoelectrics and electrostrictors, provide the backbone of a variety of consumer technologies. Gd- and Sm-doped ceria are ion conducting ceramics, finding application in fuel cells, oxygen sensors, and, potentially, as memristor materials. While optimal design of ceria-based devices requires a thorough understanding of their mechanical and electromechanical properties, reports of systematic study of the effect of dopant concentration on the electromechanical behavior of ceria-based ceramics are lacking. Here we report the longitudinal electrostriction strain coefficient (M33) of dense RExCe1-xO2-x/2 (x ≤ 0.25) ceramic pellets, where RE = Gd or Sm, measured under ambient conditions as a function of dopant concentration within the frequency range f = 0.15-350 Hz and electric field amplitude E ≤ 0.5 MV/m. For >100 Hz, all ceramic pellets tested, independent of dopant concentration, exhibit longitudinal electrostriction strain coefficient with magnitude on the order of 10-18 m2/V2. The quasi-static (f < 1 Hz) electrostriction strain coefficient for undoped ceria is comparable in magnitude, while introducing 5 mol % Gd or 5 mol % Sm produces an increase in M33 by up to 2 orders of magnitude. For x ≤ 0.1 (Gd)-0.15 (Sm), the Debye-type relaxation time constant (τ) is in the range 60-300 ms. The inverse relationship between dopant concentration and quasi-static electrostrictive strain parallels the anelasticity and ionic conductivity of Gd- and Sm-doped ceria ceramics, indicating that electrostriction is partially governed by ordering of vacancies and changes in local symmetry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39381-39387
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2 2020


  • anelasticity
  • doped ceria
  • elastic moduli
  • electrostriction
  • nanoindentation
  • point defects
  • primary creep
  • ultrasonic time of flight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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