The two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stabilized by alternating cations in the interlayer space (ACI) define a new type of structure with different physical properties than the more common Ruddlesden-Popper counterparts. However, there is a lack of understanding of material crystallization in films and its influence on the morphological/optoelectronic properties and the final photovoltaic devices. Herein, we undertake in situ studies of the solidification process for ACI 2D perovskite (GA)(MA) n Pb n I 3n+1 (n = 3) from ink to solid-state semiconductor, using solvent mixture of DMSO:DMF (1:10 v/v) as the solvent and link this behavior to solar cell devices. The in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) analysis reveals a complex journey through disordered sol-gel precursors, intermediate phases, and ultimately to ACI perovskites. The intermediate phases, including a crystalline solvate compound and the 2D GA 2 PbI 4 perovskite, provide a scaffold for the growth of the ACI perovskites during thermal annealing. We identify 2D GA 2 PbI 4 to be the key intermediate phase, which is strongly influenced by the deposition technique and determines the formation of the 1D GAPbI 3 byproducts and the distribution of various n phases of ACI perovskites in the final films. We also confirm the presence of internal charge transfer between different n phases through transient absorption spectroscopy. The high quality ACI perovskite films deposited from solvent mixture of DMSO:DMF (1:10 v/v) deliver a record power conversion efficiency of 14.7% in planar solar cells and significantly enhanced long-term stability of devices in contrast to the 3D MAPbI 3 counterpart.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry