Efficient and selective electron mediation of cobalt complexes with cyclam and related macrocycles in the p-terphenyl-catalyzed photoreduction of CO2

Shinjiro Matsuoka, Kiichi Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Ogata, Mitsuhiro Kusaba, Nobuaki Nakashima, Etsuko Fujita, Etsuko Fujita

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Cobalt(III) complexes of cyclam (cyclam (L1 = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) (CoIII L1) or related 14-membered tetraazamacrocycies (L2L8) mediate electron transfer in the photoreduction of CO2 with P-terphenyl (OPP-3) as a photocatalyst and tertiary amines as sacrificial electron donors in methanolic acetonitrile. Tertiary amines (e.g., triethylamine (TEA)) used as electron donors play an important role in the electron mediation of CoIIIL1 through coordination, and the mediation of the amine-coordinated CoIIIL1 suppresses the degradative and competitive photo-Birch reduction of OPP-3 and enhances the activity of OPP-3, leading to efficient and selective formation of both carbon monoxide (CO) and formate (HCO2 -) without producing much H2. The degradation of OPP-3 is mostly suppressed in the presence of β-hydroxylated tertiary amines such as triethanolamine (TEOA) and tri-2-propanolamine (TIPOA), leading to much more efficient and selective production of CO and HCO22. The total quantum yield of CO and HCO2 is 0.25 at 313 nm in the presence of TEOA. Preferential electron transfer from the photoformed radical anion of OPP-3 (OPP-3°-) to the TEA-coordinated CoIIIL1,[CoIIIL1,(TEA) 2]3+, is confirmed by the quenching of OPP-3°- by [CoIIIL1(TEA)2]3+ with a diffusion-controlled rate (ks = 1.1 × 1010 M-1 S-1). Successive reduction of [CoIIL1(TEA)]2+ by OPP-3°- results in the formation of [Co1L1]+ [Co1L1]+ can react with CO2 to give [Co1L1(CO2)] or react with a proton to give a d6 hydride [CoIIIL1(H-)(TEA)]2+. The extensive charge transfer from metal to bound CO2 and the coordination of tertiary amines may lead to the formation of d6 complex like [CoIIIL1(CO2 2-)(TEA)]+, which may react with an electron from OPP-3°- or Co(I) species to form CO, OH-, and Co(II) species such as [CoII-L1(TEA)2+]. As for the mechanism for the formation of HCO2-, the insertion of CO2 into intermediary hydride complexes such as [CoIIIL1,(H- )(TEA)] derived from [Co1L1]+ and H+ is proposed. The structural and electrochemical properties of cobalt complexes of the 14-membered tetraazamacrocycles investigated (L2-L8) are also discussed in view of the distribution of the reduction products of CO, HCO2 -, and H2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-609
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1993


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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