### Abstract

Simulations of the electric field poling process for second-order NLO-active polymeric materials containing dipolar chromophores were performed by modeling the time-dependent dynamics of a dipole interacting with an externally applied field and subsequent force-free relaxation, employing several modifications of the Smoluchowski equation. The model examines chromophore dipole alignment/ relaxation processes in both two- and three-dimensional space. The 3-D model predicts that at field-on equilibrium, the ratio, R, of the second-harmonic coefficients, d_{33}/d_{31}, approaches 3.0, in accord with static statistical-mechanical models. In contrast, the 2-D model predicts R ∼ 6.0. The dimensionality in which the rotational diffusion process is confined also determines the rate of dipolar alignment/relaxation, with a slower rate predicted in the 2-D case. Suitability of the rotational diffusion model for the alignment and relaxation dynamics of appended NLO chromophores in poled polymer films is also examined. At temperatures at or above the glass transition temperature, T_{g}, experimentally measured das relaxation kinetics of a prototypical chromophore-functionalized polymer, N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(S)-prolinoxy poly(p-hydroxystyrene), (S)-NPP-PHS, are well described by the bi-exponential expression predicted by the 3-D model. Below T_{g}, however, the dynamics are not well modeled as simple 3-D rotational diffusion, the apparent result of complex dynamical matrix interactions. Under all conditions examined, the experimental d_{31} relaxation dynamics can be described approximately using the 2-D model. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate above T_{g} is well described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation, while below T_{g}, the reorientation process is Arrhenius-like. The d_{33} growth kinetics are found to be accurately approximated using expressions derived from the 3-D rotational diffusion model. Below Tg the experimental activation energy determined from field-on polarization is identical within experimental error to that determined for field-off depolarization.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 6296-6310 |

Number of pages | 15 |

Journal | Macromolecules |

Volume | 28 |

Issue number | 18 |

Publication status | Published - 1995 |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Materials Chemistry

### Cite this

*Macromolecules*,

*28*(18), 6296-6310.

**Electric field poling in polymeric nonlinear optical materials. Relaxation dynamics, model, and experiment.** / Firestone, Millicent A.; Ratner, Mark A; Marks, Tobin J.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Macromolecules*, vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 6296-6310.

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electric field poling in polymeric nonlinear optical materials. Relaxation dynamics, model, and experiment

AU - Firestone, Millicent A.

AU - Ratner, Mark A

AU - Marks, Tobin J

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - Simulations of the electric field poling process for second-order NLO-active polymeric materials containing dipolar chromophores were performed by modeling the time-dependent dynamics of a dipole interacting with an externally applied field and subsequent force-free relaxation, employing several modifications of the Smoluchowski equation. The model examines chromophore dipole alignment/ relaxation processes in both two- and three-dimensional space. The 3-D model predicts that at field-on equilibrium, the ratio, R, of the second-harmonic coefficients, d33/d31, approaches 3.0, in accord with static statistical-mechanical models. In contrast, the 2-D model predicts R ∼ 6.0. The dimensionality in which the rotational diffusion process is confined also determines the rate of dipolar alignment/relaxation, with a slower rate predicted in the 2-D case. Suitability of the rotational diffusion model for the alignment and relaxation dynamics of appended NLO chromophores in poled polymer films is also examined. At temperatures at or above the glass transition temperature, Tg, experimentally measured das relaxation kinetics of a prototypical chromophore-functionalized polymer, N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(S)-prolinoxy poly(p-hydroxystyrene), (S)-NPP-PHS, are well described by the bi-exponential expression predicted by the 3-D model. Below Tg, however, the dynamics are not well modeled as simple 3-D rotational diffusion, the apparent result of complex dynamical matrix interactions. Under all conditions examined, the experimental d31 relaxation dynamics can be described approximately using the 2-D model. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate above Tg is well described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation, while below Tg, the reorientation process is Arrhenius-like. The d33 growth kinetics are found to be accurately approximated using expressions derived from the 3-D rotational diffusion model. Below Tg the experimental activation energy determined from field-on polarization is identical within experimental error to that determined for field-off depolarization.

AB - Simulations of the electric field poling process for second-order NLO-active polymeric materials containing dipolar chromophores were performed by modeling the time-dependent dynamics of a dipole interacting with an externally applied field and subsequent force-free relaxation, employing several modifications of the Smoluchowski equation. The model examines chromophore dipole alignment/ relaxation processes in both two- and three-dimensional space. The 3-D model predicts that at field-on equilibrium, the ratio, R, of the second-harmonic coefficients, d33/d31, approaches 3.0, in accord with static statistical-mechanical models. In contrast, the 2-D model predicts R ∼ 6.0. The dimensionality in which the rotational diffusion process is confined also determines the rate of dipolar alignment/relaxation, with a slower rate predicted in the 2-D case. Suitability of the rotational diffusion model for the alignment and relaxation dynamics of appended NLO chromophores in poled polymer films is also examined. At temperatures at or above the glass transition temperature, Tg, experimentally measured das relaxation kinetics of a prototypical chromophore-functionalized polymer, N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(S)-prolinoxy poly(p-hydroxystyrene), (S)-NPP-PHS, are well described by the bi-exponential expression predicted by the 3-D model. Below Tg, however, the dynamics are not well modeled as simple 3-D rotational diffusion, the apparent result of complex dynamical matrix interactions. Under all conditions examined, the experimental d31 relaxation dynamics can be described approximately using the 2-D model. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate above Tg is well described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation, while below Tg, the reorientation process is Arrhenius-like. The d33 growth kinetics are found to be accurately approximated using expressions derived from the 3-D rotational diffusion model. Below Tg the experimental activation energy determined from field-on polarization is identical within experimental error to that determined for field-off depolarization.

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M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0001119790

VL - 28

SP - 6296

EP - 6310

JO - Macromolecules

JF - Macromolecules

SN - 0024-9297

IS - 18

ER -