Endosomal Organization of CpG Constructs Correlates with Enhanced Immune Activation

Kwahun Lee, Ziyin N. Huang, Chad A. Mirkin, Teri W. Odom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This Letter describes how the endosomal organization of immunostimulatory nanoconstructs can tune the in vitro activation of macrophages. Nanoconstructs composed of gold nanoparticles conjugated with unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligonucleotides have distinct endosomal distributions depending on the surface curvature. Mixed-curvature constructs produce a relatively high percentage of hollow endosomes, where constructs accumulated primarily along the interior edges. These constructs achieved a higher level of toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 activation along with the enhanced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to constant-curvature constructs that aggregated mostly in the center of the endosomes. Our results underscore the importance of intraendosomal interactions in regulating immune responses and targeted delivery.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNano letters
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020


  • CpG
  • immunostimulation
  • intracellular targeting
  • nanoparticle
  • surface curvature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

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