Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes

Shannon W. Boettcher, Joshua M. Spurgeon, Morgan C. Putnam, Emily L. Warren, Daniel B. Turner-Evans, Michael D. Kelzenberg, James R. Maiolo, Harry A. Atwater, Nathan S Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

423 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Silicon wire arrays, though attractive materials for use in photovoltaics and as photocathodes for hydrogen generation, have to date exhibited poor performance. Using a copper-catalyzed, vapor-liquidsolid-growth process, SiCl4 and BCl3 were used to grow ordered arrays of crystalline p-type silicon (p-Si) microwires on p+-Si(lll) substrates. When these wire arrays were used as photocathodes in contact with an aqueous methyl viologen2+/+ electrolyte, energy-conversion efficiencies of up to 3% were observed for monochromatic 808-nanometer light at fluxes comparable to solar illumination, despite an external quantum yield at short circuit of only 0.2. Internal quantum yields were at least 0.7, demonstrating that the measured photocurrents were limited by light absorption in the wire arrays, which filled only 4% of the incident optical plane in our test devices. The inherent performance of these wires thus conceptually allows the development of efficient photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy-conversion devices based on a radial junction platform.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-187
Number of pages3
JournalScience
Volume327
Issue number5962
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Fingerprint

Silicon
Equipment and Supplies
Lighting
Electrolytes
Copper
Hydrogen
Light
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Boettcher, S. W., Spurgeon, J. M., Putnam, M. C., Warren, E. L., Turner-Evans, D. B., Kelzenberg, M. D., ... Lewis, N. S. (2010). Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes. Science, 327(5962), 185-187. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1180783

Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes. / Boettcher, Shannon W.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Putnam, Morgan C.; Warren, Emily L.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Maiolo, James R.; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

In: Science, Vol. 327, No. 5962, 2010, p. 185-187.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Boettcher, SW, Spurgeon, JM, Putnam, MC, Warren, EL, Turner-Evans, DB, Kelzenberg, MD, Maiolo, JR, Atwater, HA & Lewis, NS 2010, 'Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes', Science, vol. 327, no. 5962, pp. 185-187. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1180783
Boettcher SW, Spurgeon JM, Putnam MC, Warren EL, Turner-Evans DB, Kelzenberg MD et al. Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes. Science. 2010;327(5962):185-187. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1180783
Boettcher, Shannon W. ; Spurgeon, Joshua M. ; Putnam, Morgan C. ; Warren, Emily L. ; Turner-Evans, Daniel B. ; Kelzenberg, Michael D. ; Maiolo, James R. ; Atwater, Harry A. ; Lewis, Nathan S. / Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes. In: Science. 2010 ; Vol. 327, No. 5962. pp. 185-187.
@article{20d582f9629140008079ba0bfc63469f,
title = "Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes",
abstract = "Silicon wire arrays, though attractive materials for use in photovoltaics and as photocathodes for hydrogen generation, have to date exhibited poor performance. Using a copper-catalyzed, vapor-liquidsolid-growth process, SiCl4 and BCl3 were used to grow ordered arrays of crystalline p-type silicon (p-Si) microwires on p+-Si(lll) substrates. When these wire arrays were used as photocathodes in contact with an aqueous methyl viologen2+/+ electrolyte, energy-conversion efficiencies of up to 3{\%} were observed for monochromatic 808-nanometer light at fluxes comparable to solar illumination, despite an external quantum yield at short circuit of only 0.2. Internal quantum yields were at least 0.7, demonstrating that the measured photocurrents were limited by light absorption in the wire arrays, which filled only 4{\%} of the incident optical plane in our test devices. The inherent performance of these wires thus conceptually allows the development of efficient photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy-conversion devices based on a radial junction platform.",
author = "Boettcher, {Shannon W.} and Spurgeon, {Joshua M.} and Putnam, {Morgan C.} and Warren, {Emily L.} and Turner-Evans, {Daniel B.} and Kelzenberg, {Michael D.} and Maiolo, {James R.} and Atwater, {Harry A.} and Lewis, {Nathan S}",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1126/science.1180783",
language = "English",
volume = "327",
pages = "185--187",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "5962",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes

AU - Boettcher, Shannon W.

AU - Spurgeon, Joshua M.

AU - Putnam, Morgan C.

AU - Warren, Emily L.

AU - Turner-Evans, Daniel B.

AU - Kelzenberg, Michael D.

AU - Maiolo, James R.

AU - Atwater, Harry A.

AU - Lewis, Nathan S

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Silicon wire arrays, though attractive materials for use in photovoltaics and as photocathodes for hydrogen generation, have to date exhibited poor performance. Using a copper-catalyzed, vapor-liquidsolid-growth process, SiCl4 and BCl3 were used to grow ordered arrays of crystalline p-type silicon (p-Si) microwires on p+-Si(lll) substrates. When these wire arrays were used as photocathodes in contact with an aqueous methyl viologen2+/+ electrolyte, energy-conversion efficiencies of up to 3% were observed for monochromatic 808-nanometer light at fluxes comparable to solar illumination, despite an external quantum yield at short circuit of only 0.2. Internal quantum yields were at least 0.7, demonstrating that the measured photocurrents were limited by light absorption in the wire arrays, which filled only 4% of the incident optical plane in our test devices. The inherent performance of these wires thus conceptually allows the development of efficient photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy-conversion devices based on a radial junction platform.

AB - Silicon wire arrays, though attractive materials for use in photovoltaics and as photocathodes for hydrogen generation, have to date exhibited poor performance. Using a copper-catalyzed, vapor-liquidsolid-growth process, SiCl4 and BCl3 were used to grow ordered arrays of crystalline p-type silicon (p-Si) microwires on p+-Si(lll) substrates. When these wire arrays were used as photocathodes in contact with an aqueous methyl viologen2+/+ electrolyte, energy-conversion efficiencies of up to 3% were observed for monochromatic 808-nanometer light at fluxes comparable to solar illumination, despite an external quantum yield at short circuit of only 0.2. Internal quantum yields were at least 0.7, demonstrating that the measured photocurrents were limited by light absorption in the wire arrays, which filled only 4% of the incident optical plane in our test devices. The inherent performance of these wires thus conceptually allows the development of efficient photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy-conversion devices based on a radial junction platform.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=74249091524&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=74249091524&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1126/science.1180783

DO - 10.1126/science.1180783

M3 - Article

C2 - 20056886

AN - SCOPUS:74249091524

VL - 327

SP - 185

EP - 187

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 5962

ER -