Energy relationships in optical and thermal electron transfer. Temperature dependence of an intervalence transfer absorption band

Joseph T. Hupp, Gregory A. Neyhart, Thomas J. Meyer, Edward M. Kober

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The temperature dependence of the intervalence transfer (IT) band for the transition [(bpy)2ClRuII(pz)RuIII(NH3) 5]4+ → [(bpy)2ClRuIII(pz)RuII(NH3) 5]4+ (pz = pyrazine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) has been studied in CH3OD and in a nitrile solvent mixture. The temperature dependences of E1/2 for the component RuIII/II couples in this complex were also studied by cyclic voltammetry. The temperature dependence of the absorption band, which was quite large, (∂Eop/∂T) = -10 cm-1 K-1 in CH3OD, μ = 0.035 M, was found to be the same, within experimental error, as the temperature dependence of the difference between the E1/2 values for the RuIII/II couples. This agreement provides experimental evidence that the absorption band energy includes the free energy change between the initial and final states and not just the change in enthalpy or internal energy. This is consistent with a model proposed by Marcus and Sutin for electron-transfer based on free energy surfaces despite the inability of the dielectric continuum model to account for the solvent-dependent behavior of this dimer. A quantum mechanical model is also found to predict that the absorption band energy should be temperature dependent because the band energy depends upon the free energy change. This model is based on potential energy surfaces and harmonic oscillator wave functions but includes differences in frequencies and reorganizational energies between the initial and final states, which is the crucial feature for the definition of an entropic change. Complications appear in the relationships that exist between optical and thermal electron transfer, and they are presented and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10820-10830
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1992


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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