The fill factor (FF) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has proven difficult to optimize by synthetic modification of the active layer materials. In this contribution, a series of small-molecule donors (SMDs) incorporating chalcogen atoms of increasing atomic number (Z), namely oxygen, sulfur, and selenium, into the side chains are synthesized and the relationship between the chalcogen Z and the FF of OPV devices is characterized. Larger Z chalcogen atoms are found to consistently enhance FF in bulk-heterojunction OPVs containing PC61BM as the acceptor material. A significant ∼8% FF increase is obtained on moving from O to S to Se across three series of SMDs. The FF enhancement is found to result from the combination of more ordered morphology and decreased charge recombination in blend films for the high-Z-chalcogen SMDs. Because this FF enhancement is found within three series of SMDs, the overall strategy is promising for new SMD materials design.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Fuel Technology
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Chemistry