Surface dipole modifications were identified for contamination-free In 2O3-based transparent conducting oxides by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy on both thin film and bulk ceramic specimens. In particular, heating in air was found to result in an increase in ionization potential and work function. The formation of surface dipoles may be related to the unique structure (crystal, defect) of bixbyite-based materials. These findings have important ramifications for the tuning of work functions in In2O3-based transparent conductors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)