Evolutionary Design and Prototyping of Single Crystalline Titanium Nitride Lattice Optics

Jingtian Hu, Xiaochen Ren, Amber N. Reed, Thaddeus Reese, Dongjoon Rhee, Brandon Howe, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Augustine M. Urbas, Teri W. Odom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the design and prototyping of single-crystalline TiN plasmonic metasurfaces based on subwavelength hole arrays. An evolutionary algorithm with a multiobjective fitness function was developed to produce a variety of three-dimensional (3D) light profiles with balanced intensities at the light spots. We also demonstrated a simple, efficient technique to prototype these lattice designs in large-area TiN films by combining focused ion beam milling and wet chemical etching. Multilevel phase control was achieved by tuning nanohole size, and multipoint focusing with arbitrary light spot patterns was realized. Using anisotropic nanohole shapes, the TiN lattice lenses could exhibit dynamic tuning of the focal profiles by changing the polarization of incident light.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)606-612
Number of pages7
JournalACS Photonics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 15 2017


  • evolutionary algorithm
  • flat optics
  • metasurface
  • surface plasmon
  • titanium nitride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biotechnology
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Evolutionary Design and Prototyping of Single Crystalline Titanium Nitride Lattice Optics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this