Experimental limitations in impedance spectroscopy: Part I - Simulation of reference electrode artifacts in three-point measurements

G. Hsieh, S. J. Ford, Thomas O Mason, L. R. Pederson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Impedance studies on test circuits demonstrated that three-point measurements are susceptible to voltage divider distortion/artifacts if the reference electrode impedance approaches the analyzer input impedance. These features can be avoided by using an instrument with a high input impedance or a reference electrode with a low input impedance. A correction procedure is also presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-201
Number of pages11
JournalSolid State Ionics
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2 1996



  • Impedance spectroscopy
  • Reference electrodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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