Experimental limitations in impedance spectroscopy: Part VI. Four-point measurements of solid materials systems

G. Hsieh, S. J. Ford, Thomas O Mason, L. R. Pederson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)


Four-point impedance spectroscopy of solid materials systems is severely hampered by unavoidable voltage-divider effects associated with the reference electrodes. As demonstrated by test circuit studies and experiments with Pt/YSZ/Pt cells (with embedded silver reference electrodes), high impedance reference electrodes can produce distorted and erroneous impedance data. The relationships between these data and the sample properties (conductivity, dielectric constant) and instrument limitations (input impedance/capacitance) are derived. Successful four-point impedance measurements on conductive systems require large effective dielectric constants, which may be unattainable in bulk solids, but are often associated with internal interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-311
Number of pages15
JournalSolid State Ionics
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1997



  • Four-point measurements
  • Impedance spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this