Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation

Michael D. Dickey, Emily A Weiss, Elizabeth J. Smythe, Ryan C. Chiechi, Federico Capasso, George M. Whitesides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to ∼ 1.5 μm in height and 20 -200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium - tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of ∼ 5 × 105 greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)800-808
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Volume2
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Oxides
Nanotubes
metal oxides
nanotubes
Evaporation
Metals
evaporation
Aluminum Oxide
porosity
Fabrication
fabrication
tubes
membranes
Membranes
metals
aluminum oxides
Aluminum
templates
transparence
backups

Keywords

  • AAO (anodized aluminum oxide)
  • ITO (indium-tin oxide)
  • Line-of-sight deposition
  • Nanofabrication
  • Nanotube arrays
  • SERS (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy)
  • Shadow evaporation
  • Templated fabrication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Dickey, M. D., Weiss, E. A., Smythe, E. J., Chiechi, R. C., Capasso, F., & Whitesides, G. M. (2008). Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation. ACS Nano, 2(4), 800-808. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn800036r

Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation. / Dickey, Michael D.; Weiss, Emily A; Smythe, Elizabeth J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M.

In: ACS Nano, Vol. 2, No. 4, 04.2008, p. 800-808.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dickey, MD, Weiss, EA, Smythe, EJ, Chiechi, RC, Capasso, F & Whitesides, GM 2008, 'Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation', ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 800-808. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn800036r
Dickey MD, Weiss EA, Smythe EJ, Chiechi RC, Capasso F, Whitesides GM. Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation. ACS Nano. 2008 Apr;2(4):800-808. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn800036r
Dickey, Michael D. ; Weiss, Emily A ; Smythe, Elizabeth J. ; Chiechi, Ryan C. ; Capasso, Federico ; Whitesides, George M. / Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation. In: ACS Nano. 2008 ; Vol. 2, No. 4. pp. 800-808.
@article{68d43980aef94dac80f2a9f017768ad3,
title = "Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation",
abstract = "This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to ∼ 1.5 μm in height and 20 -200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium - tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of ∼ 5 × 105 greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.",
keywords = "AAO (anodized aluminum oxide), ITO (indium-tin oxide), Line-of-sight deposition, Nanofabrication, Nanotube arrays, SERS (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy), Shadow evaporation, Templated fabrication",
author = "Dickey, {Michael D.} and Weiss, {Emily A} and Smythe, {Elizabeth J.} and Chiechi, {Ryan C.} and Federico Capasso and Whitesides, {George M.}",
year = "2008",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1021/nn800036r",
language = "English",
volume = "2",
pages = "800--808",
journal = "ACS Nano",
issn = "1936-0851",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation

AU - Dickey, Michael D.

AU - Weiss, Emily A

AU - Smythe, Elizabeth J.

AU - Chiechi, Ryan C.

AU - Capasso, Federico

AU - Whitesides, George M.

PY - 2008/4

Y1 - 2008/4

N2 - This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to ∼ 1.5 μm in height and 20 -200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium - tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of ∼ 5 × 105 greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.

AB - This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to ∼ 1.5 μm in height and 20 -200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium - tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of ∼ 5 × 105 greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.

KW - AAO (anodized aluminum oxide)

KW - ITO (indium-tin oxide)

KW - Line-of-sight deposition

KW - Nanofabrication

KW - Nanotube arrays

KW - SERS (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy)

KW - Shadow evaporation

KW - Templated fabrication

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=46849115799&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=46849115799&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/nn800036r

DO - 10.1021/nn800036r

M3 - Article

VL - 2

SP - 800

EP - 808

JO - ACS Nano

JF - ACS Nano

SN - 1936-0851

IS - 4

ER -