Geometric imaging of borophene polymorphs with functionalized probes

Xiaolong Liu, Luqing Wang, Shaowei Li, Matthew S. Rahn, Boris I. Yakobson, Mark C Hersam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A common characteristic of borophene polymorphs is the presence of hollow hexagons (HHs) in an otherwise triangular lattice. The vast number of possible HH arrangements underlies the polymorphic nature of borophene, and necessitates direct HH imaging to definitively identify its atomic structure. While borophene has been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy using conventional metal probes, the convolution of topographic and electronic features hinders unambiguous identification of the atomic lattice. Here, we overcome these limitations by employing CO-functionalized atomic force microscopy to visualize structures corresponding to boron-boron covalent bonds. Additionally, we show that CO-functionalized scanning tunneling microscopy is an equivalent and more accessible technique for HH imaging, confirming the v 1/5 and v 1/6 borophene models as unifying structures for all observed phases. Using this methodology, a borophene phase diagram is assembled, including a transition from rotationally commensurate to incommensurate phases at high growth temperatures, thus corroborating the chemically discrete nature of borophene.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1642
JournalNature communications
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy
Boron
hexagons
Scanning tunneling microscopy
Carbon Monoxide
Polymorphism
hollow
Imaging techniques
Covalent bonds
probes
Atomic Force Microscopy
Growth temperature
Convolution
Phase diagrams
scanning tunneling microscopy
Atomic force microscopy
boron
Metals
Temperature
covalent bonds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Geometric imaging of borophene polymorphs with functionalized probes. / Liu, Xiaolong; Wang, Luqing; Li, Shaowei; Rahn, Matthew S.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Hersam, Mark C.

In: Nature communications, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1642, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, Xiaolong ; Wang, Luqing ; Li, Shaowei ; Rahn, Matthew S. ; Yakobson, Boris I. ; Hersam, Mark C. / Geometric imaging of borophene polymorphs with functionalized probes. In: Nature communications. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 1.
@article{cac53f463aad40e6bb966aec24a83c98,
title = "Geometric imaging of borophene polymorphs with functionalized probes",
abstract = "A common characteristic of borophene polymorphs is the presence of hollow hexagons (HHs) in an otherwise triangular lattice. The vast number of possible HH arrangements underlies the polymorphic nature of borophene, and necessitates direct HH imaging to definitively identify its atomic structure. While borophene has been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy using conventional metal probes, the convolution of topographic and electronic features hinders unambiguous identification of the atomic lattice. Here, we overcome these limitations by employing CO-functionalized atomic force microscopy to visualize structures corresponding to boron-boron covalent bonds. Additionally, we show that CO-functionalized scanning tunneling microscopy is an equivalent and more accessible technique for HH imaging, confirming the v 1/5 and v 1/6 borophene models as unifying structures for all observed phases. Using this methodology, a borophene phase diagram is assembled, including a transition from rotationally commensurate to incommensurate phases at high growth temperatures, thus corroborating the chemically discrete nature of borophene.",
author = "Xiaolong Liu and Luqing Wang and Shaowei Li and Rahn, {Matthew S.} and Yakobson, {Boris I.} and Hersam, {Mark C}",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/s41467-019-09686-w",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Nature Communications",
issn = "2041-1723",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Geometric imaging of borophene polymorphs with functionalized probes

AU - Liu, Xiaolong

AU - Wang, Luqing

AU - Li, Shaowei

AU - Rahn, Matthew S.

AU - Yakobson, Boris I.

AU - Hersam, Mark C

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - A common characteristic of borophene polymorphs is the presence of hollow hexagons (HHs) in an otherwise triangular lattice. The vast number of possible HH arrangements underlies the polymorphic nature of borophene, and necessitates direct HH imaging to definitively identify its atomic structure. While borophene has been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy using conventional metal probes, the convolution of topographic and electronic features hinders unambiguous identification of the atomic lattice. Here, we overcome these limitations by employing CO-functionalized atomic force microscopy to visualize structures corresponding to boron-boron covalent bonds. Additionally, we show that CO-functionalized scanning tunneling microscopy is an equivalent and more accessible technique for HH imaging, confirming the v 1/5 and v 1/6 borophene models as unifying structures for all observed phases. Using this methodology, a borophene phase diagram is assembled, including a transition from rotationally commensurate to incommensurate phases at high growth temperatures, thus corroborating the chemically discrete nature of borophene.

AB - A common characteristic of borophene polymorphs is the presence of hollow hexagons (HHs) in an otherwise triangular lattice. The vast number of possible HH arrangements underlies the polymorphic nature of borophene, and necessitates direct HH imaging to definitively identify its atomic structure. While borophene has been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy using conventional metal probes, the convolution of topographic and electronic features hinders unambiguous identification of the atomic lattice. Here, we overcome these limitations by employing CO-functionalized atomic force microscopy to visualize structures corresponding to boron-boron covalent bonds. Additionally, we show that CO-functionalized scanning tunneling microscopy is an equivalent and more accessible technique for HH imaging, confirming the v 1/5 and v 1/6 borophene models as unifying structures for all observed phases. Using this methodology, a borophene phase diagram is assembled, including a transition from rotationally commensurate to incommensurate phases at high growth temperatures, thus corroborating the chemically discrete nature of borophene.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064047754&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85064047754&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41467-019-09686-w

DO - 10.1038/s41467-019-09686-w

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Nature Communications

JF - Nature Communications

SN - 2041-1723

IS - 1

M1 - 1642

ER -