High aspect ratio nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic iminium salts

Chao Sun, Meng Shen, Anton D. Chavez, Austin M. Evans, Xiaolong Liu, Boris Harutyunyan, Nathan C. Flanders, Mark C Hersam, Michael J. Bedzyk, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, William R. Dichtel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

One-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and actin filaments rely on strong and directional interactions to stabilize their high aspect ratio shapes. This requirement has precluded making isolated, long, thin organic nanotubes by stacking molecular macrocycles, as their noncovalent stacking interactions are generally too weak. Here we report high aspect ratio (>103), lyotropic nanotubes of stacked, macrocyclic, iminium salts, which are formed by protonation of the corresponding imine-linked macrocycles. Iminium ion formation establishes cohesive interactions that, in organic solvent (tetrahydrofuran), are two orders of magnitude stronger than the neutral macrocycles, as explained by physical arguments and demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations. Nanotube formation stabilizes the iminium ions, which otherwise rapidly hydrolyze, and is reversed and restored upon addition of bases and acids. Acids generated by irradiating a photoacid generator or sonicating chlorinated solvents also induced nanotube assembly, allowing these nanostructures to be coupled to diverse stimuli, and, once assembled, they can be fixed permanently by cross-linking their pendant alkenes. As large macrocyclic chromonic liquid crystals, these iminium salts are easily accessible through a modular design and provide a means to rationally synthesize structures that mimic the morphology and rheology of carbon nanotubes and biological tubules.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8883-8888
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume115
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 4 2018

Fingerprint

Nanotubes
Aspect ratio
Salts
Carbon Nanotubes
Nanostructures
Ions
Liquid Crystals
Acids
Imines
Protonation
Alkenes
Rheology
Organic solvents
Molecular dynamics
Actins
Computer simulation

Keywords

  • Macrocycles
  • Molecular dynamics
  • Nanotubes
  • Stimuli-responsive materials
  • Supramolecular chemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Sun, C., Shen, M., Chavez, A. D., Evans, A. M., Liu, X., Harutyunyan, B., ... Dichtel, W. R. (2018). High aspect ratio nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic iminium salts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(36), 8883-8888. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1809383115

High aspect ratio nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic iminium salts. / Sun, Chao; Shen, Meng; Chavez, Anton D.; Evans, Austin M.; Liu, Xiaolong; Harutyunyan, Boris; Flanders, Nathan C.; Hersam, Mark C; Bedzyk, Michael J.; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Dichtel, William R.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 115, No. 36, 04.09.2018, p. 8883-8888.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sun, C, Shen, M, Chavez, AD, Evans, AM, Liu, X, Harutyunyan, B, Flanders, NC, Hersam, MC, Bedzyk, MJ, de la Cruz, MO & Dichtel, WR 2018, 'High aspect ratio nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic iminium salts', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 115, no. 36, pp. 8883-8888. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1809383115
Sun, Chao ; Shen, Meng ; Chavez, Anton D. ; Evans, Austin M. ; Liu, Xiaolong ; Harutyunyan, Boris ; Flanders, Nathan C. ; Hersam, Mark C ; Bedzyk, Michael J. ; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera ; Dichtel, William R. / High aspect ratio nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic iminium salts. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2018 ; Vol. 115, No. 36. pp. 8883-8888.
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