High-resolution soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the oxidation of alkylated silicon(111) surfaces under ambient conditions. Silicon(111) surfaces were functionalized through a two-step route involving radical chlorination of the H-terminated surface followed by alkylation with alkylmagnesium halide reagents. After 24 h in air, surface species representing Si+, Si2+, Si3+, and Si4+ were detected on the Cl-terminated surface, with the highest oxidation state (Si4+) oxide signal appearing at +3.79 eV higher in energy than the bulk Si 2p3/2 peak. The growth of silicon oxide was accompanied by a reduction in the surface-bound Cl signal. After 48 h of exposure to air, the Cl-terminated Si(111) surface exhibited 3.63 equivalent monolyers (ML) of silicon oxides. In contrast, after exposure to air for 48 h, CH3-, C2H5-, or C6H 5CH2-terminated Si surfaces displayed <0.4 ML of surface oxide, and in most cases only displayed ≈0.20 ML of oxide. This oxide was principally composed of Si+ and Si3+ species with peaks centered at +0.8 and +3.2 eV above the bulk Si 2p3/2 peak, respectively. The silicon 2p SXPS peaks that have previously been assigned to surface Si-C bonds did not change significantly, either in binding energy or in relative intensity, during such air exposure. Use of a high miscut-angle surface (7° vs <0.5° off of the (111) surface orientation) yielded no increase in the rate of oxidation nor change in binding energy of the resultant oxide that formed on the alkylated Si surfaces. Scanning Auger microscopy indicated that the alkylated surfaces formed oxide in isolated, inhomogeneous patches on the surface.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry