How Innocent are Potentially Redox Non-Innocent Ligands? Electronic Structure and Metal Oxidation States in Iron-PNN Complexes as a Representative Case Study

Burkhard Butschke, Kathlyn L. Fillman, Tatyana Bendikov, Linda J W Shimon, Yael Diskin-Posner, Gregory Leitus, Serge I. Gorelsky, Michael L. Neidig, David Milstein

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Abstract

Herein we present a series of new α-iminopyridine-based iron-PNN pincer complexes [FeBr2LPNN] (1), [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), [Fe(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (3), [Fe(F)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (4), and [Fe(H)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (5) with formal oxidation states ranging from Fe(0) to Fe(II) (LPNN = 2-[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]-6-[1-(2,4,6-mesitylimino)ethyl]pyridine). The complexes were characterized by a variety of methods including 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P NMR, IR, Mössbauer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and X-ray crystallography, focusing on the assignment of the metal oxidation states. Ligand structural features suggest that the α-iminopyridine ligand behaves as a redox non-innocent ligand in some of these complexes, particularly in [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), in which it appears to adopt the monoanionic form. In addition, the NMR spectroscopic features (13C, 15N) indicate the accumulation of charge density on parts of the ligand for 2. However, a combination of spectroscopic measurements that more directly probe the iron oxidation state (e.g., XPS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electronic absorption studies combined with time-dependent DFT calculations support the description of the metal atom in 2 as Fe(0). We conclude from our studies that ligand structural features, while useful in many assignments of ligand redox non-innocence, may not always accurately reflect the ligand charge state and, hence, the metal oxidation state. For complex 2, the ligand structural changes are interpreted in terms of strong back-donation from the metal center to the ligand as opposed to electron transfer. (Chemical Equation Presented).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4909-4926
Number of pages18
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume54
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 18 2015

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Electronic structure
Iron
Metals
electronic structure
Ligands
iron
Oxidation
ligands
oxidation
Carbon Monoxide
metals
Density functional theory
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance
photoelectron spectroscopy
density functional theory
Circular dichroism spectroscopy
Oxidation-Reduction
nuclear magnetic resonance
x rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

How Innocent are Potentially Redox Non-Innocent Ligands? Electronic Structure and Metal Oxidation States in Iron-PNN Complexes as a Representative Case Study. / Butschke, Burkhard; Fillman, Kathlyn L.; Bendikov, Tatyana; Shimon, Linda J W; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Leitus, Gregory; Gorelsky, Serge I.; Neidig, Michael L.; Milstein, David.

In: Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 10, 18.05.2015, p. 4909-4926.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Butschke, Burkhard ; Fillman, Kathlyn L. ; Bendikov, Tatyana ; Shimon, Linda J W ; Diskin-Posner, Yael ; Leitus, Gregory ; Gorelsky, Serge I. ; Neidig, Michael L. ; Milstein, David. / How Innocent are Potentially Redox Non-Innocent Ligands? Electronic Structure and Metal Oxidation States in Iron-PNN Complexes as a Representative Case Study. In: Inorganic Chemistry. 2015 ; Vol. 54, No. 10. pp. 4909-4926.
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abstract = "Herein we present a series of new α-iminopyridine-based iron-PNN pincer complexes [FeBr2LPNN] (1), [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), [Fe(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (3), [Fe(F)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (4), and [Fe(H)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (5) with formal oxidation states ranging from Fe(0) to Fe(II) (LPNN = 2-[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]-6-[1-(2,4,6-mesitylimino)ethyl]pyridine). The complexes were characterized by a variety of methods including 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P NMR, IR, M{\"o}ssbauer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and X-ray crystallography, focusing on the assignment of the metal oxidation states. Ligand structural features suggest that the α-iminopyridine ligand behaves as a redox non-innocent ligand in some of these complexes, particularly in [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), in which it appears to adopt the monoanionic form. In addition, the NMR spectroscopic features (13C, 15N) indicate the accumulation of charge density on parts of the ligand for 2. However, a combination of spectroscopic measurements that more directly probe the iron oxidation state (e.g., XPS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electronic absorption studies combined with time-dependent DFT calculations support the description of the metal atom in 2 as Fe(0). We conclude from our studies that ligand structural features, while useful in many assignments of ligand redox non-innocence, may not always accurately reflect the ligand charge state and, hence, the metal oxidation state. For complex 2, the ligand structural changes are interpreted in terms of strong back-donation from the metal center to the ligand as opposed to electron transfer. (Chemical Equation Presented).",
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AU - Bendikov, Tatyana

AU - Shimon, Linda J W

AU - Diskin-Posner, Yael

AU - Leitus, Gregory

AU - Gorelsky, Serge I.

AU - Neidig, Michael L.

AU - Milstein, David

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N2 - Herein we present a series of new α-iminopyridine-based iron-PNN pincer complexes [FeBr2LPNN] (1), [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), [Fe(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (3), [Fe(F)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (4), and [Fe(H)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (5) with formal oxidation states ranging from Fe(0) to Fe(II) (LPNN = 2-[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]-6-[1-(2,4,6-mesitylimino)ethyl]pyridine). The complexes were characterized by a variety of methods including 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P NMR, IR, Mössbauer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and X-ray crystallography, focusing on the assignment of the metal oxidation states. Ligand structural features suggest that the α-iminopyridine ligand behaves as a redox non-innocent ligand in some of these complexes, particularly in [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), in which it appears to adopt the monoanionic form. In addition, the NMR spectroscopic features (13C, 15N) indicate the accumulation of charge density on parts of the ligand for 2. However, a combination of spectroscopic measurements that more directly probe the iron oxidation state (e.g., XPS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electronic absorption studies combined with time-dependent DFT calculations support the description of the metal atom in 2 as Fe(0). We conclude from our studies that ligand structural features, while useful in many assignments of ligand redox non-innocence, may not always accurately reflect the ligand charge state and, hence, the metal oxidation state. For complex 2, the ligand structural changes are interpreted in terms of strong back-donation from the metal center to the ligand as opposed to electron transfer. (Chemical Equation Presented).

AB - Herein we present a series of new α-iminopyridine-based iron-PNN pincer complexes [FeBr2LPNN] (1), [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), [Fe(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (3), [Fe(F)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (4), and [Fe(H)(CO)2LPNN](BF4) (5) with formal oxidation states ranging from Fe(0) to Fe(II) (LPNN = 2-[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]-6-[1-(2,4,6-mesitylimino)ethyl]pyridine). The complexes were characterized by a variety of methods including 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P NMR, IR, Mössbauer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and X-ray crystallography, focusing on the assignment of the metal oxidation states. Ligand structural features suggest that the α-iminopyridine ligand behaves as a redox non-innocent ligand in some of these complexes, particularly in [Fe(CO)2LPNN] (2), in which it appears to adopt the monoanionic form. In addition, the NMR spectroscopic features (13C, 15N) indicate the accumulation of charge density on parts of the ligand for 2. However, a combination of spectroscopic measurements that more directly probe the iron oxidation state (e.g., XPS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electronic absorption studies combined with time-dependent DFT calculations support the description of the metal atom in 2 as Fe(0). We conclude from our studies that ligand structural features, while useful in many assignments of ligand redox non-innocence, may not always accurately reflect the ligand charge state and, hence, the metal oxidation state. For complex 2, the ligand structural changes are interpreted in terms of strong back-donation from the metal center to the ligand as opposed to electron transfer. (Chemical Equation Presented).

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