Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet

Bryan Lau, Ofer Kedem, Mark A Ratner, Emily A Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. This paper describes the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By examining the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062128
JournalPhysical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Volume93
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 20 2016

Fingerprint

Ratchet
Biharmonic
Electron
friction
Friction
electrons
chemical energy
oscillations
Oscillation
thermal energy
Potential Well
Master Equation
flat surfaces
Reversal
Energy
Damped
Wave Function
wave functions
Motion
Range of data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability

Cite this

@article{919fb0edb608415cb0ce44ff9df30c43,
title = "Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet",
abstract = "Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. This paper describes the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By examining the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.",
author = "Bryan Lau and Ofer Kedem and Ratner, {Mark A} and Weiss, {Emily A}",
year = "2016",
month = "6",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128",
language = "English",
volume = "93",
journal = "Physical Review E",
issn = "2470-0045",
publisher = "American Physical Society",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet

AU - Lau, Bryan

AU - Kedem, Ofer

AU - Ratner, Mark A

AU - Weiss, Emily A

PY - 2016/6/20

Y1 - 2016/6/20

N2 - Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. This paper describes the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By examining the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.

AB - Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. This paper describes the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By examining the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84975229716&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84975229716&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128

M3 - Article

VL - 93

JO - Physical Review E

JF - Physical Review E

SN - 2470-0045

IS - 6

M1 - 062128

ER -