A single atomic layer of tungsten grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a single-crystal rutile TiO2(110) support is studied by the X-ray standing wave (XSW) technique. The surface structural and chemical properties were also examined using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. The XSW measured set of hkl Fourier components for the W atomic distribution function are summed together to produce a model-independent 3D map of the W atoms relative to the rutile lattice. The 3D atomic image shows surface tungsten atoms equally occupying the two nonequivalent Ti sites with a slight outward displacement. This corresponds to the atop and bridge sites with respect to the underlying lattice oxygen atoms. These XSW measurements clearly show that ALD conformal layers can be highly coherent with respect to the substrate lattice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry