Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants

Junfeng Zhang, Yevgen Nazarenko, Lin Zhang, Leonardo Calderon, Ki Bum Lee, Eric Garfunkel, Stephan Schwander, Teresa D. Tetley, Kian Fan Chung, Alexandra E. Porter, Mary Ryan, Howard Kipen, Paul J. Lioy, Gediminas Mainelis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer- recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13077-13085
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Nov 19 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

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