In Situ Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on Film Morphology Evolution in Spin-Cast Small-Molecule and Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

Eric F. Manley, Joseph Strzalka, Thomas J. Fauvell, Tobin J Marks, Lin X. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To elucidate the details of film morphology/order evolution during spin-coating, solvent and additive effects are systematically investigated for three representative organic solar cell (OSC) active layer materials using combined in situ grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and optical reflectance. Two archetypical semiconducting donor (p-type) polymers, P3HT and PTB7, and semiconducting donor small-molecule, p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 are studied using three neat solvents (chloroform, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene) and four processing additives (1-chloronaphthalene, diphenyl ether, 1,8-diiodooctane, and 1,6-diiodohexane). In situ GIWAXS identifies several trends: 1) for neat solvents, rapid crystallization occurs that risks kinetically locking the material into multiple crystal structures or crystalline orientations; and 2) for solvent + additive processed films, morphology evolution involves sequential transformations on timescales ranging from seconds to hours, with key divergences dependent on additive/semiconductor molecular interactions. When π-planes dominate the additive/semiconductor interactions, both polymers and small molecule films follow similar evolutions, completing in 1-5 min. When side chains dominate the additive/semiconductor interactions, polymer film maturation times are up to 9 h, while initial crystallization times <10 s are observed for small-molecule films. This study offers guiding information on OSC donor intermediate morphologies, evolution timescales, and divergent evolutions that can inform OSC manufacture.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Polymers
Molecules
Beam plasma interactions
Semiconductor materials
Crystallization
Scattering
X rays
Molecular interactions
Spin coating
Chloroform
Chlorine compounds
Polymer films
Crystal orientation
Ethers
Crystal structure
Crystalline materials
Processing
Organic solar cells

Keywords

  • Additives
  • In situ GIWAXS
  • Organic solar cells
  • Polymer
  • Spin-coating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

In Situ Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on Film Morphology Evolution in Spin-Cast Small-Molecule and Polymer Photovoltaic Materials. / Manley, Eric F.; Strzalka, Joseph; Fauvell, Thomas J.; Marks, Tobin J; Chen, Lin X.

In: Advanced Energy Materials, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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