In situ thermal decomposition of exfoliated two-dimensional black phosphorus

Xiaolong Liu, Joshua D. Wood, Kan Sheng Chen, Eunkyung Cho, Mark C Hersam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

107 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With a semiconducting band gap and high charge carrier mobility, two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP)-often referred to as phosphorene-holds significant promise for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, as a 2D material, it possesses a higher surface area to volume ratio than bulk BP, suggesting that its chemical and thermal stability will be modified. Herein, an atomic-scale microscopic and spectroscopic study is performed to characterize the thermal degradation of mechanically exfoliated 2D BP. From in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy, decomposition of 2D BP is observed to occur at ∼400 °C in vacuum, in contrast to the 550 °C bulk BP sublimation temperature. This decomposition initiates via eye-shaped cracks along the [001] direction and then continues until only a thin, amorphous red phosphorus like skeleton remains. In situ electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and energy-loss near-edge structure changes provide quantitative insight into this chemical transformation process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)773-778
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 5 2015

Fingerprint

Phosphorus
thermal decomposition
phosphorus
Pyrolysis
energy dissipation
Decomposition
decomposition
Electron energy loss spectroscopy
thermal degradation
Carrier mobility
Sublimation
Chemical stability
carrier mobility
Charge carriers
sublimation
musculoskeletal system
Optoelectronic devices
spectroscopy
charge carriers
Energy dissipation

Keywords

  • black phosphorus
  • phosphorene
  • STEM
  • sublimation
  • TEM
  • thermal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

In situ thermal decomposition of exfoliated two-dimensional black phosphorus. / Liu, Xiaolong; Wood, Joshua D.; Chen, Kan Sheng; Cho, Eunkyung; Hersam, Mark C.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 6, No. 5, 05.03.2015, p. 773-778.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, Xiaolong ; Wood, Joshua D. ; Chen, Kan Sheng ; Cho, Eunkyung ; Hersam, Mark C. / In situ thermal decomposition of exfoliated two-dimensional black phosphorus. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 2015 ; Vol. 6, No. 5. pp. 773-778.
@article{23838bb6c5304e0387a36a21a3d081ad,
title = "In situ thermal decomposition of exfoliated two-dimensional black phosphorus",
abstract = "With a semiconducting band gap and high charge carrier mobility, two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP)-often referred to as phosphorene-holds significant promise for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, as a 2D material, it possesses a higher surface area to volume ratio than bulk BP, suggesting that its chemical and thermal stability will be modified. Herein, an atomic-scale microscopic and spectroscopic study is performed to characterize the thermal degradation of mechanically exfoliated 2D BP. From in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy, decomposition of 2D BP is observed to occur at ∼400 °C in vacuum, in contrast to the 550 °C bulk BP sublimation temperature. This decomposition initiates via eye-shaped cracks along the [001] direction and then continues until only a thin, amorphous red phosphorus like skeleton remains. In situ electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and energy-loss near-edge structure changes provide quantitative insight into this chemical transformation process.",
keywords = "black phosphorus, phosphorene, STEM, sublimation, TEM, thermal",
author = "Xiaolong Liu and Wood, {Joshua D.} and Chen, {Kan Sheng} and Eunkyung Cho and Hersam, {Mark C}",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00043",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "773--778",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters",
issn = "1948-7185",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - In situ thermal decomposition of exfoliated two-dimensional black phosphorus

AU - Liu, Xiaolong

AU - Wood, Joshua D.

AU - Chen, Kan Sheng

AU - Cho, Eunkyung

AU - Hersam, Mark C

PY - 2015/3/5

Y1 - 2015/3/5

N2 - With a semiconducting band gap and high charge carrier mobility, two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP)-often referred to as phosphorene-holds significant promise for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, as a 2D material, it possesses a higher surface area to volume ratio than bulk BP, suggesting that its chemical and thermal stability will be modified. Herein, an atomic-scale microscopic and spectroscopic study is performed to characterize the thermal degradation of mechanically exfoliated 2D BP. From in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy, decomposition of 2D BP is observed to occur at ∼400 °C in vacuum, in contrast to the 550 °C bulk BP sublimation temperature. This decomposition initiates via eye-shaped cracks along the [001] direction and then continues until only a thin, amorphous red phosphorus like skeleton remains. In situ electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and energy-loss near-edge structure changes provide quantitative insight into this chemical transformation process.

AB - With a semiconducting band gap and high charge carrier mobility, two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP)-often referred to as phosphorene-holds significant promise for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, as a 2D material, it possesses a higher surface area to volume ratio than bulk BP, suggesting that its chemical and thermal stability will be modified. Herein, an atomic-scale microscopic and spectroscopic study is performed to characterize the thermal degradation of mechanically exfoliated 2D BP. From in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy, decomposition of 2D BP is observed to occur at ∼400 °C in vacuum, in contrast to the 550 °C bulk BP sublimation temperature. This decomposition initiates via eye-shaped cracks along the [001] direction and then continues until only a thin, amorphous red phosphorus like skeleton remains. In situ electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and energy-loss near-edge structure changes provide quantitative insight into this chemical transformation process.

KW - black phosphorus

KW - phosphorene

KW - STEM

KW - sublimation

KW - TEM

KW - thermal

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84928956808&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84928956808&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00043

DO - 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00043

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 773

EP - 778

JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

SN - 1948-7185

IS - 5

ER -