Classical electrostriction, describing a second-order electromechanical response of insulating solids, scales with elastic compliance, S, and inversely with dielectric susceptibility, ε. This behavior, first noted 20 years ago by Robert Newnham, is shown to apply to a wide range of electrostrictors including polymers, glasses, crystalline linear dielectrics, and relaxor ferroelectrics. Electrostriction in fluorite ceramics of (Y, Nb)-stabilized δ-Bi2O3 is examined with 16%-23% vacant oxygen sites. Given the values of compliance and dielectric susceptibility, the electrostriction coefficients are orders of magnitude larger than those expected from Newnham's scaling law. In ambient temperature nanoindentation measurements, (Y, Nb)-stabilized δ-Bi2O3 displays primary creep. These findings, which are strikingly similar to those reported for Gd-doped ceria, support the suggestion that ion conducting ceramics with the fluorite structure, a large concentration of anion vacancies and anelastic behavior, may constitute a previously unknown class of electrostrictors.
- delta-phase bismuth oxide
- point defects
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics