Light-controlled self-assembly of reversible and irreversible nanoparticle suprastructures

Rafal Klajn, Kyle J.M. Bishop, Bartosz A. Grzybowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

290 Citations (Scopus)


Nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with ligands combining photoswitchable dipoles and covalent cross-linkers can be assembled by light into organized, three-dimensional suprastructures of various types and sizes. NPs covered with only few photoactive ligands form metastable crystals that can be assembled and disassembled "on demand" by using light of different wavelengths. For higher surface concentrations, self-assembly is irreversible, and the NPs organize into permanently cross-linked structures including robust supracrystals and plastic spherical aggregates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10305-10309
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - Jun 19 2007


  • Azobenzene
  • Colloids
  • Crystallization
  • Dynamic
  • Photoswitchable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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