Liquid Water- and Heat-Resistant Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics via an Inverted ALD Oxide Electron Extraction Layer Design

In Soo Kim, Duyen H. Cao, D. Bruce Buchholz, Jonathan D. Emery, Omar K. Farha, Joseph T. Hupp, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Alex B.F. Martinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)


Despite rapid advances in conversion efficiency (>22%), the environmental stability of perovskite solar cells remains a substantial barrier to commercialization. Here, we show a significant improvement in the stability of inverted perovskite solar cells against liquid water and high operating temperature (100 °C) by integrating an ultrathin amorphous oxide electron extraction layer via atomic layer deposition (ALD). These unencapsulated inverted devices exhibit a stable operation over at least 10 h when subjected to high thermal stress (100 °C) in ambient environments, as well as upon direct contact with a droplet of water without further encapsulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7786-7790
Number of pages5
JournalNano letters
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 14 2016



  • Hybrid perovskites
  • atomic layer deposition
  • inverted design
  • photovoltaics
  • stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this