Macroporous polymer nanocomposites synthesised from high internal phase emulsion templates stabilised by reduced graphene oxide

Ling L Ching Wong, Suelen Barg, Angelika Menner, Paula Do Vale Pereira, Goki Eda, Manish Chhowalla, Eduardo Saiz, Alexander Bismarck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is known to be electrically conductive and adsorb at oil-water interfaces. It has also been shown to mechanically reinforce bulk materials. This work combines these favourable characteristics of two-dimensional rGO to develop 3D macroporous polymer nanocomposites via emulsion templating. rGO proved to be an efficient emulsifier as only 0.2 mg/ml (with respect to the oil phase) of rGO was required to stabilise water-in-oil high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) of up to 80 vol.% internal phase. After polymerisation of the continuous minority monomer (styrene and divinylbenzene) phase, macroporous polymer nanocomposites with tuneable microstructures were obtained. The storage modulus of rGO-poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) HIPEs increased by almost an order of magnitude when the rGO concentration used to stabilise the HIPE template increased from 0.4 to 5.0 mg/ml. The adsorption and organisation of rGO at the o/w interface in HIPEs prior to polymerisation and partial aggregation in the polymer cell walls after polymerisation resulted in conductive nanocomposites with a rGO content of as low as 0.006 vol.% (with respect to bulk polymer volume or 0.8 mg/ml with respect to the monomer volume used in the emulsion template) compared to 0.1 vol.% for dense nanocomposites previously reported. This provided evidence for the efficient arrangement of rGO within the macroporous polymer nanocomposite, creating an electrically conductive network.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-402
Number of pages8
JournalPolymer
Volume55
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 14 2014

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Graphite
Emulsions
Oxides
Graphene
Nanocomposites
Polymers
Oils
divinyl benzene
Polymerization
Styrene
Monomers
Water
Agglomeration
Elastic moduli
Cells
Adsorption
Microstructure

Keywords

  • Chemically modified graphene
  • Macroporous polymers
  • Nanocomposites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

Macroporous polymer nanocomposites synthesised from high internal phase emulsion templates stabilised by reduced graphene oxide. / Wong, Ling L Ching; Barg, Suelen; Menner, Angelika; Do Vale Pereira, Paula; Eda, Goki; Chhowalla, Manish; Saiz, Eduardo; Bismarck, Alexander.

In: Polymer, Vol. 55, No. 1, 14.01.2014, p. 395-402.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wong, Ling L Ching ; Barg, Suelen ; Menner, Angelika ; Do Vale Pereira, Paula ; Eda, Goki ; Chhowalla, Manish ; Saiz, Eduardo ; Bismarck, Alexander. / Macroporous polymer nanocomposites synthesised from high internal phase emulsion templates stabilised by reduced graphene oxide. In: Polymer. 2014 ; Vol. 55, No. 1. pp. 395-402.
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